Text colored in black is the original rules text, altered only minorly, such as replacing "Casi Bellorum" with "Casus Belli", or editing in details from the supplement pages, to cite two examples.
Text colored in green is edited in from Mr. Costikyan's addenda / errata.
Text colored in dark brown is transcribed from Mr. Costikyan's answers to individual questions.
Text colored in light brown is my own personal rules alterations / interpretations.
If you run your cursor over these red dots, it should give a brief and inobtrusive reason for my own (light brown) rules changes and/or interpretations.
Numbers on the left in parentheses (colored in red) are the original page numbers from the rule book, to help you if you want to refer back. In the few instances where a page ended in mid-paragraph, the numbers are moved either to the start or the end of the paragraph, depending on circumstance.
There's some legalese at the very end of the document.
PAX BRITANNICA: THE RULES
Pax Britannica is a multi-player game that re-creates the dynamics of the colonial era, from 1880 to the outbreak of the Great War. Starting from the world situation in 1880, each of four to seven players takes the part of one of the Great Powers of the late 19th and early 20th Centuries: Great Britain, France, Germany (who also controls Austria-Hungary), the United States, Imperial Russia, Japan, or Italy. Each player spends money and maneuvers military forces to establish control over various Areas of the world, and each controlled Area can generate income that will, in turn, increase the player's treasury. This income generated by a player's colonies is then used to further extend his empire, to construct new military units and maintain them in the field, and to accumulate Victory Points.
As conflicting colonial strategies develop, players form alliances and negotiate with other Great Powers. When compromise and conciliation fail, wars may occur. Moreover, various Random Events can instigate Unrest among a player's colonies, forcing the player to quell native uprisings or face the loss of his colony.
Ultimately, each player will attempt to fulfill his own colonial strategy at the expense of other players. Conflict is to be expected, although players must be careful to avoid sparking the Great War.
The game lasts for 10 Game Turns, or until the outbreak of the Great War, which ends the game immediately and severely punishes the player who has brought it about.
The Pax Britannica game map portrays the world divided into land Areas and Sea Zones. Note that, when the two-section map is laid out for play, it is recommended that you overlap one section with the other by half an inch or so.
You may experience some difficulty at first in locating some of the less well known Areas on the unusual projection used in the game map. At the center of this booklet, you will find a more typical world map projection, with the Area names keyed to a grid. Using this player aid, you should be able to quickly find any Area. Also, on the back of the map in this booklet is an Area Data Summary, providing quick reference to the vital statistics on each Area: its Economic Value, Combat Strength, adjacent Sea Zones, and adjacent Areas.
Note: Guiana's base economic value is changed to 4.
Note: New Zealand , but not Fiji, is adjacent to the South Pacific as well as Oceania.
Optional: After the first War in the Balkans (Random Event 1-1), there exists an overland route between Greece and Serbia. After the second War in the Balkans, there exists an overland route between Bulgaria and Greece replacing the route between Anatolia and Serbia; in addition, there exists a connection between Bulgaria and the Mediterranean Sea. (These rules reflect border changes resulting from the First and Second Balkan Wars.)
There are 104 Areas on the map, each represented by a box that includes the Area's name, its Economic Value, and its Combat Strength. Each Area is eligible to become a colony of any player (subject to restrictions detailed later in these rules). The Area Type Key on each Player Sheet distinguishes among five types of Areas:
Area type is critical to the play of Pax Britannica, and players should refer to the Area Type Key as often as need be to familiarize themselves with these types.
Apart from the 5 Area Types, each Area is either a Coastal Area or a non-Coastal Area. This distinction is easily noticed, because each Coastal Area has one or more colored boxes affixed, indicating the Sea Zones on which it borders.
Note, however, that some Coastal Areas such as Canada and the Kongo have their Area boxes located well inland, because it was impossible to fit them conveniently along the coast. Such Areas are Coastal Areas nonetheless, for all purposes. Also, when Naval Units occupy Areas that are adjacent to two unconnected Sea Zones (such as Canada and Mexico) keep the Naval Unit to one side of the Area box, on the side near the appropriate Sea Zone designation; in the event of War the actual Sea Zone side occupied by the Naval Unit can be important.
There are 12 Sea Zones on the map, each of which is represented by an oval that includes the Sea Zone's name, its number, and a key to indicate the Sea Zones to which it is adjacent. The distinctive color (or combination of colors) in each Sea Zone oval corresponds to the colors affixed to each Coastal Area. When a Sea Zone color appears in a box affixed to a Coastal Area, that Coastal Area is considered adjacent to that Sea Zone (and vice versa).
Note that some Coastal Areas are adjacent to more than one Sea Zone (see, for example, the Dutch East Indies Area, which is adjacent to the Indian Ocean, the North Pacific Ocean, and the South China Sea).
When a Sea Zone color appears in a circle inside another Sea Zone oval, those two Sea Zones are considered adjacent to one another.
Note that most Sea Zones are adjacent to more than one other Sea Zone (see, for instance, the Mediterranean Sea, which is adjacent to the North Atlantic, the Black Sea, and the Indian Ocean).
Also included on the map are two Cape Zones: the Cape of Good Hope, and Cape Horn. These two ovals are ignored for all purposes, except when moving during War.
Most Areas are connected to each other by Overland Routes. Whenever an Army Unit is moving overland, or a player is attempting to trace a Communication Link overland, you can move or trace from one Area to another only along these Routes (thus, for instance, no one can ever reach Aden by an Overland Route). Areas that are directly connected by a single Overland Route line are considered adjacent (thus, for instance, Panama and Central America are adjacent, but Panama and Mexico are not adjacent, since they are not connected by a single Overland Route line).
(6) Canals and Straits
In Panama, Central America, Egypt, and Anatolia, there are notes printed on the map indicating special cases relevant to certain Sea Zones. Players should be particularly aware of these notes when attempting to move Military Units and maintain them in supply during War.
Home Countries and Home Areas
Each player's Home Country is depicted on the map, together with its adjacent Sea Zones and Overland Routes. Note that no player can ever move an Army Unit, Naval Unit, or Status marker into the Home Country of another player. You can, however, move Army Units and Naval Units into your own Home Country.
Each player's Home Area box, located around the edges of the map, is considered identical for all game purposes to his Home Country; the Home Areas are provided simply to give players more space (since, for instance, it is very difficult to keep all of Great Britain's Army and Naval Units in the tiny space allotted to the British Isles on the map). All of the Army Units that a player currently has at home should be kept in the main box of his Home Area. Each Naval Unit that a player has at home should be kept in the appropriate Sea Zone Box of his Home Area.
For instance, if you are the United States player and you have Naval Units stationed on your West Coast, keep them in the North Pacific Box of your Home Area.
Attached to each player's Home Area is his Treasury Track. Each player has three markers to use on this track, to record his expenditures during each Game Turn.
Minor Powers (not represented by players) also have Home Areas on the map, but without Treasury Tracks, since Minor Powers never receive or spend money.
Chinese Resentment Index
Throughout the game, the level of Chinese Resentment will increase as a result of foreign interference in Chinese Empire and Chinese Vassal Areas. As the resentment level rises, players must adjust the two markers on the Chinese Resentment Index to reflect the new level.
European Tensions Index
As with Chinese Resentment - although for different reasons - European Tensions will tend to increase during the game, building toward a possible outbreak of the Great War (which immediately ends the game, with dire consequences). As the tension level increases, players must adjust the two markers on the European Tensions Index to reflect the new level.
Game Turn Track
Pax Britannica is played in a series of Game Turns. At the beginning of each turn, the Game Turn marker is placed in the next space of the Game Turn Track. Each of these spaces is marked with the four-year period represented by the turn, the countries that receive new Merchant Fleets in that turn, and the Victory Point (VP) penalty inflicted on each player if the Great War breaks out in that turn.
Note that a player who is actually responsible for a Great War breaking out is penalized triple the amount shown on the Game Turn Track.
Each Game Turn is divided into a number of Phases. As each Phase of a given Game Turn is completed, the Phase marker is moved into the next space of the Phase Track. When all Phases have been completed, the Phase marker is returned to the Random Events box for the next Game Turn.
A separate track is provided for use when a War is in progress. A War uses a sequence of Phases that interrupts the normal flow of the game. Once the War is completed, the Phase marker is moved back to the normal Phase Track, into the Victory Point Record Box.
Charts and Tables
The Random Events Table, Unrest Tables, and Minor Powers Activity Table are also printed on the mapsheet. The use of these charts is explained in the appropriate rules sections.
There are 12 sets of playing pieces in Pax Britannica - one set each for Great Britain, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, the United States, Japan, Russia, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, and Portugal.
The number of playing pieces provided for each player is an absolute limit. Should you run out of a particular type of piece (because all of that type are in use), you cannot use substitute markers to represent the type of piece you are lacking.
Additionally, there are six pieces used to represent Chinese or Ottoman armies, and numerous neutral game markers. It is highly recommended that players keep the playing pieces sorted by national color and type. There are four basic categories of playing pieces:
All Military Units are triangular and are available in three strengths 1, 3, and 10 Strength Points representing, roughly, regiment or squadron strength, division or task force strength, and corps or fleet strength. (Ottoman and Chinese Armies are available only in 5 Strength Points.) Army Units are printed on the back of equal strength Naval Units. Note that, once an Army or Naval Unit is purchased, the playing pieces cannot be turned over in play (thus, a Naval Unit cannot be converted to an Army Unit).
Note that Military Units are not interchangeable. For instance, three (1) Army Units once purchased cannot be exchanged for a single (3) Unit.
There are four types of Status markers (plus two special cases) printed on two different counter shapes. Interest and Influence markers are printed on the front and back of round playing pieces. Protectorate and Possession markers are printed on the front and back of hexagonal playing pieces. The two special cases - Dominion and Statehood markers - are peculiar to the British and US players, respectively.
Note that all hexagonal markers are often referred to, collectively, as Control markers (because the placement of these markers gives a player virtual control of an Area).
There is only one type of Merchant Fleet, and all Merchant Fleets are treated identically throughout the game. Merchant Fleets are printed on triangular playing pieces.
(7) Game Markers
There are nine types of Game markers, all printed on square playing pieces. Treasury Track, Chinese Resentment, European Tension, Game Turn, and Phase markers are all used on the tracks printed on the map. Unrest, Status Change, Casus Belli, and Canal markers are used on the map to remind players of certain ongoing situations.
The £ symbols (Pounds) used on the Treasury Track, markers, and throughout these rules can be roughly translated as hundreds of thousands of Pounds, or more simply as mega -Pounds. Note that, in the unlikely event that you accumulate more than 999 £1 in a Game Turn, each player has one back-printed Treasury Track marker reading "+1000" for use on the hundreds line of his track.
The Chinese Resentment Index may exceed 100. Write "+100" on the back of one of the Chinese Resentment markers; use this marker on the 10s track of the Index. When the Index exceeds 99, flip the marker over to its "+100" side, and move it back to the beginning of the track; the Index is now 100 plus the number represented by the markers on the track.
There are 8 Player Sheets included in Pax Britannica. Each Player Sheet includes information pertaining specifically to that player for setting up his playing pieces and filling out his Administrative Record Sheet. Numerous charts, tables, and summaries are also included on the Player Sheets. In particular, the Chinese Resentment Increase Summary is provided on the Japan and France Sheets, and the European Tensions Increase Summary is provided on the US, Russia, and Italy Sheets. Both of these Summaries should be referred to frequently, since their conditions can be met (and require action) at almost any time.
ADMINISTRATIVE RECORD SHEETS
A pad of 25 Administrative Record Sheets is provided with Pax Britannica. In each game, each player must fill out one of these sheets, and keep it up to date from Game Turn to Game Turn. On the back of each Record Sheet is a summary of Victory Point awards and a summary of Movement and Status Change rules.
Pax Britannica is an extremely interactive game, where four to seven players can all be doing something different at the same time. To impose some semblance of order on the game, players must proceed according to a Game Turn Sequence. This Sequence, which is delineated in the following chapter, simply defines the order in which certain activities can or must be undertaken.
These rules are organized, as nearly as they can be, according to the Game Turn Sequence. Once you are familiar with the map, the playing pieces, and so forth, you should read through the Game Turn Sequence to gain a general feel for the game. The chapters following the Game Turn Sequence deal in detail with the specific activities that take place during each Phase of the Game Turn Sequence. Once you have begun to play the game, any time you have a question about a rule, you should be able to find an explanation by simply turning to the chapter appropriate to the Phase you are currently playing through.
It is also hoped that this organization (together with the reference index at the bottom of each right-hand page) will allow players to answer whatever questions may arise in the course of their game. Should an unresolvable problem be discovered, we invite you to write to us.
SETTING UP THE GAME
Pax Britannica can be played by from four to seven players. If only four are playing, each selects one of the following Great Powers: Great Britain, France, Germany (who also controls Austria-Hungary), and the United States. If five are playing, add Japan to the list. If six are playing, add Russia. If seven are playing, add Italy. Any Great Power not represented by a player in a game with fewer than seven players is a Minor Power for that game.
Each player should sit as close to his Home Area as possible, and refer to his Player Sheet. The Initial Deployment section of the Player Sheet specifies which playing pieces the player needs to begin the game, and where they are to be placed. It is recommended that each player take only those playing pieces he needs to deploy initially, leaving the rest in the counter storage tray until they are needed. Note that anyone can set up the Minor Powers pieces initially.
Note: Spain should also begin with merchant fleets in the South Atlantic and North Pacific; use spare counters.
Note: When Japan is a Minor Power, set it up with a second merchant fleet in the South China Sea.
Note: The Russian 10 strength naval unit begins in the Baltic Sea box, not the Black Sea box; the 1 strength naval unit that formerly began in the Baltic Sea box is set up in the Black Sea.
Note: The British fleet in Canada is set up on the North Atlantic coast.
After deploying all Initial Set-Up playing pieces on the map, place all Treasury, Chinese Resentment, and European Tension
markers in the zero spaces of their tracks. Place the Game Turn marker in the 1880 box of the Game Turn Track, and the
Phase marker in the Random Events box of the Phase Track. Place all undeployed Merchant Fleets on the Game Turn
Track, according to nationality, in the appropriate year Game Turn boxes.
Do not, however, place Merchant Fleets on the Game Turn Track for Russia, Japan, and/or Italy if that Power is a Minor Power in this game. Minor Powers never receive new Merchant Fleets.
Then conduct the Random Events Phase of the first Game Turn. Once the Random Events Phase is completed, move the Phase Marker to the Administrative Record Phase. In this first Administrative Record Phase, each player should copy the information from the Initial Administrative Record section of his Player Sheet to a clean Administrative Record Sheet. This information represents the income and expenditures resulting from the initial deployment of units and markers, and allows players to skip most of the Administrative Phase calculations in their first Game Turn.
Note that some players must still roll for their Colonial Office Income for the first turn, and/or adjust their Colonial Office Income for certain Random Events that may have occurred in the preceding Phase.
(8) Once all players have filled out Sections I through IV of their Administrative Record Sheets, they are ready to continue the first Game Turn by moving the Phase marker to the Minor Powers Phase.
The following terms are used with great frequency throughout the rules. Many of these terms are defined when introduced in the main body of the rules, but more rigorous definitions and amplifications are provided here. You are advised to be reasonably familiar with these terms before reading the rest of the rules. This section will also be useful in refreshing your understanding of a term while reading the rules.
Adjacent. The rules often stipulate adjacency as a prerequisite for various activities. As an aid in determining what is adjacent to what, the back of the map insert in this booklet lists all Areas and the Areas and Sea Zones to which they are considered adjacent.
Area. An Area is any one of the 104 regions represented on the map by an Area box (see your Player Sheet for a key to Area types). Any player can place a Status marker in any Area, subject to the rules for Status change.
Casus Belli. Literally translated, Casus Belli means "cause of war. No player can declare War on another player or Minor Power without a legitimate Casus Belli. The Casus Belli Summary on the back of each Player Sheet lists legitimate Casus Belli.
Colonial Power. There are two types of Colonial Powers in the game: Great Powers and Minor Powers. Both types of
Powers can place Status markers to establish colonies. Great Powers are represented by players, and Minor Powers act
according to the rules in the Minor Powers Phase. Great Britain, France, Germany (together with Austria-Hungary), and the
United States are always Great Powers. Spain, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Belgium are always Minor Powers.
Depending on how many players are in the game, Russia, Japan, and Italy can be either Great or Minor Powers.
Historical Note: The term "Great Power" is a useful part of the diplomatic lexicon which, alas, has fallen into disuse. The term originally meant a state of such power that it must always be taken into account in diplomatic affairs, with the ability to project its force worldwide. In the post-World War II era, two states have become so much more powerful than all others that they are called "superpowers." Unfortunately, the development of this term in regard to the United States and Soviet Union reinforces the modern tendency to think of everything in foreign affairs as a bipolar conflict between the US and USSR.
Combat Strength. All Military Units and all Areas have a Combat Strength (which is zero for some Areas), quantifying the Unit's or Area's ability to attack or defend. Areas use their Combat Strength for defense exclusively.
Communication Link. A Communication Link is a path traced exclusively through Areas under a player's Control, Sea Zones containing one of the player's Merchant Fleets, and/or the player's Home Country. A Communication Link must exist between an Area and the player's Home Country in order for the player to place a Status marker in the Area or receive any income from the Area.
Control. A player is said to Control an Area if he has an established Protectorate, Possession, State or Dominion marker in the Area; these markers are referred to as Control markers throughout these rules.
Economic Value. Each Area has an Economic Value printed in its box. This number represents the relative economic strength of the Area, and the degree to which trade with the Area is common and profitable.
Established Marker. In game terms, an established marker is a Status marker that no longer has a Status Change marker with it in an Area. It is important to distinguish while playing the game between markers that are established and those that are as yet unestablished.
European Tensions Index. The European Tensions Index is a measure of how close to the outbreak of the Great War the nations of Europe are at any given moment. Players' actions, as well as Random Events, can affect the tension level.
Great War. A Great War is a massive pan-European War involving all the European Great Powers. The occurrence of a Great War ends the game instantly.
Merchant Fleets. Merchant Fleets are used by Colonial Powers to move Armies and to provide Communication Links to
A player's Merchant Elects represent the private, commercial shipping owned by the citizens of his country. They carry commerce between his Home Country and colonies, the value of which is represented by the income he receives from his colonies during the Administrative Phase. Since these fleets are privately maintained, they are not a drain on the player's Treasury. Although commercial shipping might be at substantial risk during a full-dress war such as World War II, large proportions of a nation's commercial fleet were never destroyed during the sharp, brief wars that characterized the period of this game.
Sea Zone. A Sea Zone is one of the 12 regions of the world's oceans, represented on the map by ovals of various colors. The color-coding in each Sea Zone indicates the Areas and neighboring Sea Zones to which it is adjacent.
Status. A player's Status with an Area is the relationship that Area bears with his government. There are six levels of Status (in ascending order of control); no Status at all; Interest; Influence; Protectorate; Possession; and Dominion/Statehood. A player's Status in an Area, represented by placing a Status marker, affects his income, his maintenance expenses, his ability to move Military Units, and numerous other facets of the game.
Treasuries. A player's Treasury, represented by a track next to his Home Area box on the map, is the amount of money he has available for colonial purposes. Players keep a running record of their Treasuries' level by moving Treasury markers on the tracks. Players spend money from their Treasuries to construct and maintain Military Units, to change and maintain Status markers, and even - if they wish - to ensure the good graces of their opponents through bribery.
Unrest. Unrest is a condition that may befall an Area as a result of a Random Event. An Area in Unrest is highly susceptible to intervention on the part of the players.
War. War interrupts the normal flow of the game, relying on its own sequence of events, altering rules for movement, and threatening to end the game if the conflict escalates into a Great War. A War can never occur unless a legitimate Casus Belli exists.
THE GAME TURN
Pax Britannica is played in a series of Game Turns, each of which represents a period of four years. Each Game Turn is played in a specific sequence of Phases, called the Game Turn Sequence. No player can ever undertake any activity during any Phase that is not specifically allowed during that Phase, as detailed in the Game Turn Sequence.
Note that certain activities do take place throughout the game, in various Phases. Informal negotiations, for instance, can occur at virtually any time, Players may wish, as the outset of a game. arrive at a mutual agreement as to how much game delaying negotiation will be tolerated. Also, players may be called upon to adjust the Chinese Resentment and European Tensions Indexes at almost any time.
(9) A game of Pax Britannica will go on for a maximum of 10 Game Turns. It may be shortened by the occurrence of a Great War.
GAME TURN SEQUENCE
Random Events Phase
Roll one die to determine how many Random Events will occur in this Game Turn.
For each Random Event that will occur, roll two dice, refer to the Random Events Table, and implement whatever event is called for.
Fill out Sections I through IV of your Administrative Record Sheets.
Note that, in the first Game Turn, most of the calculations needed for this Phase are pre-figured on each Player Sheet.
Minor Powers Phase
Roll one die for each Minor Power in the game, and refer to the Minor Powers Activity Table to determine whether or not the Minor Power is active in this Game Turn.
For each Minor Power that is active this Game Turn, roll two dice and consult the Minor Powers Activity Table to determine where the Minor Power activity will occur.
Movement/Status Change Phase
During this Phase, all players engage in the following activities in any order, reacting to one another as they wish.
Purchase and place new Status markers.
Purchase and place new Military Units.
Take any Merchant Fleets due them in the current turn from the Game Turn Track.
Note that Merchant Fleets are never purchased. The only way new Merchant Fleets can enter the game is from the Game Turn Track.
Move Military Units.
Move Merchant Fleets.
Construct a South Pacific-Caribbean canal.
Colonial Combat Phase
Conduct Colonial Combat against the Combat Strength of Areas in which you are attempting to establish a Control marker, or Areas in Unrest.
Marker Adjustment Phase
Alter Status markers and retreat Army and Naval Units from each Area that still contains an Unrest marker.
After conducting the above step, remove all Unrest markers from the map.
Remove Status Change markers from your newly established Interest and Influence markers.
Reduce Control markers to Influence markers in Areas that do not comply with the standard Garrison rules.
Attempt to negotiate settlements to existing Casus Belli.
Congress of Europe Phase
Any player with a Casus Belli can convene a Congress of Europe to draft a treaty to resolve the dispute.
If no Congress of Europe is convened, this Phase is omitted and play proceeds directly to the Chinese Resentment Phase.
Chinese Resentment Phase
Refer to the Chinese Resentment Summary and adjust the Chinese Resentment Index.
Roll three dice and refer to the Chinese Resentment Index to determine whether or not a Chinese Rebellion will occur in the following War Phase.
If a Chinese Rebellion occurs, the Ottoman Empire declares war, or any player declares war, players proceed to the War Sequence. Otherwise, this Phase is omitted and play proceeds directly to the Victory Point Record Phase.
Victory Point Record Phase
Fill out Section V of your Administrative Record Sheets.
Final Record Phase
If the 1916 Game Turn has not been completed, advance the Game Turn marker one space along the Game Turn Track to signal the end of the current Game Turn and the beginning of the next.
If the 1916 Game Turn has been completed or a Great War has occurred, each player fills out Section VI of his Administrative Record Sheet to find his finishing rank.
In each Game Turn, a variable number of Random Events will occur. These events represent political happenings throughout the world, over which the players have no control. During the Random Events Phase, the players determine how many Random Events will occur in the current Game Turn, the nature of these events, and what effects the events will have on the game.
Note that the Random Events Table is printed on the map in such a way that the United States player can most easily read it. It is recommended, therefore, that the US player roll the dice and announce the Random Events as they occur daring this Phase.
DETERMINING RANDOM EVENTS
The US player rolls one die. The result of this die roll is the number of Random Events that will occur in the current Game Turn. You may wish to write this number down, just to be certain there is no disagreement later concerning the number of Random Events. There are two basic types of Random Event: headline events and Unrest events.
For each Random Event that will occur, the US player rolls two dice and refers to the Random Events Table. Note that the Random Events Table calls for the rolls of the two dice to be read one after another, so the two dice should be rolled one after another.
Example: If the first die roll is 2 and the second is 5, the result is German Colonial Agitation.
Each time a headline event is rolled, players simply take whatever action is called for. In some cases, one or more players affected by the event should note the result for later action.
(10) Example:"Liberal Victory in Britain", which will affect the British player's Colonial Office die roll during the Administrative Record Phase, and possibly his Unit purchases during the Movement/Status Change Phase.
No single headline event can occur more than once per Random Events Phase. If a headline event that has already been
rolled is rolled again in the same Phase, re-roll for a new event instead. Headline events can, however, occur more than once
per game, in different Random Events Phase.
Some Random Events increase European Tensions directly by telling the players to raise the European Tensions Index. Should such a Random Event message cause a Great War no player is to blame, and no player loses triple Victory Points (although all players do lose the number of Victory Points listed on the Game Turn Track). Historically, World War I occurred as the result of a Serbia Defies Austria-Hungary Random Event, and thus none of the Great Powers was proximately culpable.
War in South America: Panama is considered part of South America. Thus, the United States player can enter any Area
from Panama (inclusive) south through the South American continent as a result of this Random Event.
Clarifications: If both German Navy League Agitation (event 2-4) and German Colonial Office Income (2-5) occur in the same turn, Colonial Office income is quadrupled.
Serbia Defies Austria-Hungary: Austria Hungary may purchase a Control marker, place it in Serbia, then move in army units and engage in colonial combat there. Similarly, when War in South America (2-1) or Boer Oppression of Uitlanders (3-6) is rolled, America (in the first case) or Britain (in the second) must pay for any Control marker they place.
Forced Expenditures and Tension Increases
Some Random Events require one Great Power to spend some minimum amount of money constructing and/or maintaining Military Units. If a player has insufficient money to make the required expenditure, he must spend as much money as he is able to spend on Military Units for maintenance (during the Administrative Phase) and for construction (during the Movement/Status Change Phase), but he suffers no ill effects because he is unable to meet the requirement fully.
Note that the requirement to spend money on Military Units does mean that money must be spent on Military Units as a first priority, even if some Status markers will not be maintained as a result.
When any of the forced expenditure events occur, and the affected power has insufficient income to pay for these expenditures, he must first maintain all appropriate units, then maintain status markers and, if any money remains after this, must spend as much of the remaining funds as possible building units.
If both Upheaval in Russia (1-5) and Pan-Slav Agitation (2-6) occur on the same turn, the Russian player is required to purchase military units even though he has no Colonial Office income for the turn.
Clarification: ETI increases due to markers removed from marker conflicts occur during the Marker Adjustment Phase. By definition, these come after all ETI increases for building Fleets. Further, should required German Fleet purchases drive ETI over 99 then Germany will only be held responsible, in terms of Great War blame, for fleets built in excess of those required by the Random Event.
The second type of Random Event is Unrest. When the US player rolls an Unrest result, he must refer to the appropriate Unrest Table (A through D) and roll one or two dice again, as called for on the Unrest Table he is using. The result from an Unrest Table will be the name of an Area. Immediately place an Unrest marker on the specified Area and proceed to the next Random Event.
No Area can be put into Unrest more than once per Random Events Phase. If an Area that already has an Unrest marker is rolled again in the same Phase, re-roll on the same Unrest Table for a new Area instead. An Area can, however go into Unrest more than once per game, in different Random Events Phases. During the Marker Adjustment Phase, any Unrest markers remaining on the map are removed.
Any player who moves an Army Unit into an Area in Unrest can place a Control marker there during the Movement/Status Change Phase. To establish the Control marker, the player must engage in Colonial Combat during the ensuing Colonial Combat Phase.
See Colonial Combat and Minor Power Reaction to Unrest for details on suppressing Unrest and the failure to do so.
Optional: If an area adjacent to an Ottoman Empire area or possession, with an overland link to Anatolia, goes into unrest, and no power suppresses it, the area immediately becomes an Ottoman Empire possession. Use a spare counter to represent possession and a 5-strength army unit. (Do not use the 5-strength units provided with the game, because they are needed for Chinese rebellions.) If this expansion gives a power a casus belli against the Ottomans, and a Congress of Europe is called, the Ottomans will yield the area in question, but no others, if required by the Congress to do so. If the expansion gives a power a Casus Belli, and war results, only this area may be conquered during the resulting war. During any subsequent war with the Ottomans, any Ottoman possessions are treated as Ottoman Empire areas. If an acquired area later goes into unrest again, the Ottomans will move in two additional 5-strength army units and attempt to suppress it; if multiple areas are in unrest, the two 5-strength units move to the area with the highest economic value (the armies already occupying other areas will try to suppress unrest by themselves). Once the Ottomans suppress unrest in a possession, it becomes an Ottoman Empire area. As such, remove all Ottoman troops afterwards.
Historical Note: Occasional revolts against a colonial power sometimes occurred in relatively advanced areas, such as Cuba. Primitive tribesmen also sometimes revolted against colonial authority, usually because of ill treatment or because some taboo had been violated. In addition, the colonial powers often used unrest and lack of order in an area as a pretext for intervention. Indeed, the right of a power to intervene in another country in order to restore order was an accepted part of international law. In the modern era, this is no longer the case: when the US invaded Grenada, it had to claim that it was acting to protect American students there, when in fact it was clear that the intervention was intended to restore order and prevent a communist takeover. I leave to the reader's judgment whether honest exercise of power is less or more moral than legalistic hypocrisy.
Each time you establish a Status marker, you are extending your empire and potentially increasing your profits. The Economic Value of an Area, in conjunction with the type of Status marker you place in the Area, determine's how much income you can derive from the Area in a Game Turn. But the cost of maintaining an empire is not insignificant. For each Status marker you establish, you must pay a maintenance charge, reflecting your administrative costs and other expenses. During the Administrative Phase, use your Administrative Record Sheet to determine your total income and maintenance costs, which in turn determine how many £'s you have available to spend during the next Game Turn.
Note that the German player who also controls Austria-Hungary, must perform the steps in this Phase for both countries.
Section I is the Status Record. In this Section, write the number of each type of Status marker you currently have deployed on the map (lines 01, 02, 04, 06, and 08) and the collective Economic Value of the Areas containing each type of Status marker (lines 03, 05, 07, and 09). Do not, however, count Areas or Status markers to which you have no Communication Link. You never receive income from an Area to which you cannot trace a Communication Link during the Administrative Phase.
Section II, the Income Record, records both the income you derive from your colonies and the contribution made by your own government's Colonial Office. To determine your Colonial Office's contribution each Game Turn, refer to the chart at the bottom of your Administrative Record Sheet and roll one die, cross-referencing your country with the die roll. The number indicated is the number of £'s you receive in this Game Turn; write this number on line 10.
As noted on the Administrative Record Sheet, a Power (other than Austria-Hungary) that has no Control markers on the map during the Administrative Phase receives the number of £'s listed under the 6-column, without rolling a die. The German player always rolls for Austria-Hungary normally.
On lines 11 through 14, multiply the totals from lines 03, 05, 07, and 09 by the indicated multipliers to determine how many £'s you receive in income from your colonies. Add lines 10 through 14, and write the total on line 15.
Section III, the Maintenance Record, represents the money you must spend to maintain your holdings abroad. For each Army and Naval Unit on the map outside your Home Area, you must spend a number of £'s equal to the unit's Strength Points; write the number of Strength Points you have abroad on line 16. You must also pay to maintain each of your Status markers. On lines 17 through 20, multiply the totals from lines 01, 02, 04, and 06 by the indicated multipliers to determine how many £'s you must spend. Add lines 16 through 20, and write the total on line 21.
Note that the US and British players never pay maintenance for Units in States and Dominions, although they do pay maintenance for the State and Dominion markers themselves.
NET INCOME RECORD
In Section IV, the Net Income Record, simply subtract line 21 from line 15. The number remaining after this subtraction is the number of £'s you have to spend during the current Game Turn. Write this number on line 22, and place your Treasury markers on your Treasury Track to reflect that number of £'s.
(11) If, as a result of subtracting line 21 from line 15, a player arrives at a negative number, he must eliminate exactly (or as near to exactly as possible) the necessary number of Military Units abroad and/or Status markers to brung his Treasury Track to zero.
Each space on the Administrative Record is divided into two sections. It is highly recommended that you write your current figures in the left half and keep a running total during the Game Turn of any changes in the right half For instance, if you acquire two new Influences in a Turn, make two hash marks in the right-hand box of Line 06, and write the Economic Value of each on Line 07, also in the right-hand half. Keeping a running total of changes throughout the Game Turn will save you from counting all your markers every Administrative Phase.
In each game of Pax Britannica, the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, and Portugal are Minor Powers. In 6-player games, Italy is also a Minor Power; in 5-player games, Russia is a Minor Power; and in 4-player games, Japan is a Minor Power.
Minor Powers perform most of the functions of Great Powers, with the following exceptions:
No player represents a Minor Power except in specific instances - such as wars - throughout the game.
Minor Powers never receive income of any kind.
Minor Powers never pay any maintenance costs for Military Units or for Status markers.
Minor Powers never pay to purchase new Military Units or Status markers.
Minor Powers do not accumulate Victory Points and can never win a game.
Minor Powers are never required to defeat an Area's Combat Strength when attempting to establish a Control marker.
A Minor Power will, however, engage an Area in Colonial Combat, to suppress Unrest in the Area, if it is directed to undertake activity in the Area and meets the requirements for establishing a Possession or Protectorate.
Historical Note: In the colonial era, the technological superiority of the advanced powers was such that taking and holding large areas populated by relatively primitive peoples was, by modern standards, an incredibly easy process. In a battle between an advanced army and a primitive one, the ratio of casualties usually ran on the order of 10-1 in favor of the modern army. Too, modern technology tended to overawe, and undeveloped areas were not yet contaminated by the idea that owing allegiance to a far-off power was demeaning. As well, the colonial powers tended to leave the native potentates with a great deal of power and wealth, making colonial control more secure. Even second-rate powers like Belgium and Portugal could, and did, build extensive colonial empires of their own.
DETERMINING MINOR POWER ACTIVITY
For each Minor Power in the game, roll one die and refer to the Minor Powers Activity Table. If the result on the top of the Table indicates that the Minor Power is active, immediately roll two dice, add the results together, and refer to the lower portion of the Minor Powers Activity Table to find the name of an Area. Once you have determined an Area, you must determine what type of Status marker the Minor Power will place there, according to the following schedule:
The Minor Power will attempt to established a Possession marker in the Area. To establish a Possession marker...
The Minor Power must have a Communication Link.
The Minor Power must already have a Protectorate marker in the Area.
The Minor Power must already have an Army Unit in the Area.
If the Minor Power cannot establish a Possession marker, it will attempt to establish a Protectorate marker in the
Area. To establish a Protectorate marker...
The Minor Power must have a Protectorate marker available.
The Minor Power must have an Army Unit available. An Army Unit must be placed in the Area over which the Minor Power is attempting to establish a Protectorate. This Unit must come from the Minor Power's Home Area if possible. If there are no Army Units in the Power's Home Area, the Unit must come from the nearest Area that contains two or more of the Power's Army Units if possible. If no Area contains two or more of the Power's Army Units, the Unit must come from the counter storage tray. If there is no Army Unit in the counter storage tray, the Minor Power will attempt to establish an Influence marker instead of a Protectorate marker. The only way a Minor Power can gain new units is when it places a control marker in an area and has no surplus units to garrison it.
The Minor Power must have a Communication Link.
The Area can contain no opposing Control marker. Note, however, that a Great or Minor Power that has an Influence marker in an Area has a Casus Belli against a Minor Power that attempts to place a Protectorate marker in the Area.
The Area must be either (a) an Independent, Chinese Empire, or Ottoman Empire Area that is in Unrest; or (b) the Area must be an Unorganized or Chinese Vassal Area, whether it is in Unrest or not.
If the Minor Power cannot establish a Protectorate marker, it will attempt to establish an Influence marker. To
establish an Influence marker...
The Minor Power must have an Influence marker available (an already established Interest marker in the Area meets this requirement).
The Minor Power must have a Communication Link.
The Area can contain no opposing Control marker.
If the Minor Power cannot establish an Influence marker, it will attempt to establish an Interest marker. To
establish an Interest marker...
The Minor Power must have an Interest marker available. The Minor Power must have a Communication Link.
The Area can contain no opposing Possession marker.
(12) If a Minor Power has no available Status markers, because all of them are currently in use, the Minor Power is
considered inactive for the Game Turn. If the Minor Power has available Status markers, but cannot place one in the Area
determined on the Minor Power Activity Table, re-roll until an eligible Area is specified.
Markers placed by Minor Powers are immediately established, so if a Minor Power places a Control marker in an area, Great Powers may not place Control or Influence markers in the area on the same turn.
If two or more Minor Powers are active in the same area, they will establish a codominion, if possible.
MINOR POWER/GREAT POWER STATUS CONFLICTS
If a Minor Power places a Protectorate marker, any Great Power with an Influence marker in the Area has a Casus Belli against that Minor Power. Such a Great Power can call a Congress of Europe to challenge the Minor Power's Protectorate, or can declare War against the Minor Power. In a Congress of Europe, the Minor Power does not vote, but must abide by the Congress' decisions. If the Congress rules that the Minor Power cannot obtain a Protectorate, or must share its Protectorate in a Codominion with other Powers, the Minor Power will abide by the decision. However, if the Congress rules that the Minor Power can obtain sole Protectorate over the Area, any Great Power with an Influence marker in the Area can refuse to abide by the Congress decisions and, instead, declare war against the Minor Power.
If any Power attempts to place a Control marker in an Area where a Minor Power has an Influence marker, the Minor Power will not contest the Protectorate or Possession. However, any other Great Power (with or without a Status marker in the Area) can announce that he will defend the Minor Power's rights in the Area, in which case a Congress of Europe must be called. The Minor Power does not vote in the Congress and will abide by the Congress' decisions.However, Congress may not make Proposals regarding any Minor Power territories other than those in which the Minor Powers are involved in Casus Belli. If the Congress rules against the Minor Power and permits the Great Power to obtain sole Protectorate or Possession, the Minor Power will accept the decision. If however, the Congress rules against the Great Power in the dispute, and that Great Power chooses to defy the Congress, the Minor Power will declare War against the Great Power. In this case, any player who declared he would defend the Minor Power's rights is also obligated to declare War. If he fails to do so, he automatically loses 5 Victory Points and the European Tensions Index is immediately increased by 3.These two penalties will also be applied if, after declaring War, said power signs a Separate Peace that does not include the Minor Power, or if the War finishes in such a manner that the uninvolved powers would conclude that said Power did not attempt to "do his best for the Minor Power against his opponents." Basically, if you gain territory out of a lost War with a Minor Power you supported, you take the penalties.
Note: In the case of the Random Event "American Yellow-Press Journalism", should America take this Casus Belli to the Congress then any and all Spanish markers may be included in Congressional Proposals.
MINOR POWER/MINOR POWER STATUS CONFLICTS
If, during Minor Power Activity, a Minor Power places a Control where another Minor Power has an Influence, the Minor Power with the Influence will downgrade immediately (increasing European Tensions). If multiple Minor Powers place Control Markers in the same Area, they immediately waive the CBs against each other and establish a codominion.
MINOR POWER REACTION TO UNREST
If Unrest occurs in an Area where a Minor Power has a Control marker, the Power will attempt to suppress the Unrest marker; Minor Powers will ignore Unrest in Areas where they have only Interest or Influence. A Minor Power will attempt to suppress Unrest in an Area it Controls even if the activity die roll for the Power was unsuccessful. If there are any Army Units in the Power's Home Area, those Units are immediately moved to the Unrest Area. If the Power has any Army Units in Colonial Areas that can be moved to the Unrest Area, either by sea or land, those Units are moved to the Unrest Area.
Exception: If the Minor Power has on1y one Unit in a given colonial Area, that Unit is never moved.
This movement occurs during the Minor Powers Phase. If more than one of the Power's Areas is in Unrest, the Power will move all Units to the Area with the higher Economic Value; if two or more Areas have the same Economic Value, the players should roll dice to determine randomly which Area the Minor Power will defend.
Once a Minor Power has moved its Units, it attempts to suppress Unrest. It automatically attacks the Combat Strength of the Area where it is fighting Unrest, according to the normal rules for Colonial Combat. If the power successfully suppresses Unrest in an Area where it has a Protectorate, it will automatically obtain Possession in the as a result of Unrest, a Minor Power's Army Units are forced to retreat from an Area, they will retreat to an adjacent Controlled Area of the power, if possible. If that is not possible, they will retreat back to the Power's Home Area. If that is also impossible, the Power's Units are eliminated.
If on the turn following one in which a Minor Power moved Units to suppress Unrest, the Area where Unrest was suppressed contains more than one Army Unit, the surplus Units (that is, all but the smallest) are moved to the Minor Power's Home Area.
If a Minor Power loses Influence or control over an area because of unrest, Great Powers may, on subsequent turns, place status markers there and attempt to obtain control (assuming other rules permit them to do so).
During the Movement/Status Change Phase, all players have an opportunity to purchase and move their pieces. Activities during this Phase are performed in no particular order (except that a piece must be purchased before it is placed on the map). Players are free to react to whatever activities their opponents may perform at any time during the Phase. Once a player has purchased a Status marker or Military Unit, however, he cannot then cash it in, and once a Military Unit is placed on the map, it is subject to the rules for movement.
The costs to purchase Status markers and Military Units are listed in the bottom right corner of the Administrative Record Sheet. To purchase any piece, simply deduct the required amount from your treasury track by moving your treasury markers. You cannot spend more £'s than you have available on your track.
Players can purchase and place Status markers in Areas according to the following schedule. Note that, once purchased and placed in an Area, a Status marker cannot be moved; it must be left in the Area until it is either established or eliminated. Whenever a Status marker is placed in an Area during the Movement/Status Change Phase, it must have a Status Change marker placed on top of it.
Important Note: To place any of the following Status markers, you must have a Communication Link to the Area.
You can place an Interest marker...
In any Area that contains no established Possession, Statehood, or Dominion marker.
You can place an Influence marker...
In any Area that contains no established Control marker (including Protectorate).
You can place a Protectorate or Possession marker...
In any Unorganized or Chinese Vassal Area (in Unrest or not) that contains no established Control marker.
In any Area, in Unrest, that contains no established Control marker.
Important Note: According to the Garrison rules, you must have at least one Army Unit in an Area that contains one or your Control markers - whether it is established or not - at the end of each Movement/Status Change Phase. If you fail to comply with this rule, your Control marker is reduced, during the ensuing Marker Adjustment Phase, to an Influence marker. Also, to establish a Control marker you must defeat the Areas' Combat Strength during the Colonial Combat Phase. Therefore, while it is not technically illegal, it is foolish to place a Protectorate or Possession marker in any Area without having at least one Army Unit in the Area as well.
The US player can place a State marker...
In any of the following Areas in which he already has an established Possession marker: Alaska, Cuba, Hawaii, Porto Rico.
The British player can place a Dominion marker...
In any of the following Areas in which he already has an established Possession marker: Australia, Canada, Cape Colony, New Zealand.
(13) ESTABLISHING A STATUS MARKER
Whenever you purchase a new Status marker and place it in an Area during the Movement/Status Change Phase, place a Status Change marker with it. The new Status marker is not considered to be established until the Status Change marker has been removed.
Establishing a Status Marker During Colonial Combat
Any time you place a Control marker in an Area (except Upgrading; see below) during a Movement/Status Change Phase, you must defeat the Area in Colonial Combat in the ensuing Colonial Combat Phase in order to establish the Status marker. If you defeat the Area, immediately remove the Status Change marker from the Area.
You never engage in Colonial Combat to establish an Interest or Influence marker. Interest and Influence markers can be established only during the Marker Adjustment Phase.
Establishing a Status Marker During the Marker Adjustment Phase
Any time you place an Interest or Influence marker in an Area, the marker is automatically established during the Marker Adjustment Phase. Simply remove the Status Change marker during that Phase.
If the Area happens to be in Unrest, you may still wish to engage in Colonial Combat.
Status Change and Casus Belli
To determine whether or not the placing of a Status marker provides a Casus Belli for another player who also has a Status marker in the Area, refer to the Status Marker Placement Effects Summary on the back of the Player Sheets. If a Casus Belli does exist in the Area, place a Casus Belli marker to serve as a reminder.
Note that even placing a Status marker in an Area where no one else has a Status marker can constitute a Casus Beth, can instigate war with the Ottoman Empire, can affect Chinese Resentment, or can affect European Tensions if placing the marker infringes on an existing Treaty.
ALTERING EXISTING STATUS MARKERS
If you already have a Status marker in an Area, you are entitled to alter the Status marker, within the restrictions of the rules for Status Change and the following.
You can upgrade any Status marker during any Movement Status Change Phase, just as though you were establishing a marker for the first time. All rules applying to Status marker placement apply to upgrading, with the following exception. Rather than pay the entire £ cost for a new marker, you pay only the difference in cost between the existing marker and the new marker.
Example: If a player has an Influence marker in an Area (purchase cost of 10£) and wishes to upgrade to Protectorate (purchase cost 20£), he pays only 10£- the difference between the purchase costs of the two marker types.
Additionally, if you already have a Protectorate marker in an Area and are upgrading to a Possession, State, or Dominion, you need not defeat the Area's Combat Strength to establish it.
During the Movement/Status Change Phase, you can downgrade Interest markers (by removing them) and Influence markers (by removing them or inverting them to Interest). You cannot voluntarily downgrade Control markers; Control markers can be removed or downgraded only as a result of negotiations, unsuppressed Unrest, or failure to maintain.
Note that downgrading or removing a Status marker does not imply a refund of £'s. Once purchased, a Status marker can never be converted to £'s. Downgrading or removal can, however, provide you with a marker for use in another Area.
During the Movement/Status Change Phase, you can transfer Status Markers to other Powers. Both powers must be in agreement for the transfer to occur. Status Markers are received at the same level they are transferred at, e.g. a transferred Possession will remain a Possession under its new owner. States and Dominions, being unique to the Powers that hold them, therefor cannot be transferred.
Players are required to keep at least one Army Unit in each of their Controlled Areas. If, at the end of any Movement / Status Change Phase, a Controlled Area does not meet this requirement, the Status marker is immediately removed and replaced by an Influence marker of the same nationality.
Garrisoning of Controlled Areas is a requirement, not an option. Should a power find themselves
possessed with insufficient Army Units to garrison all their Controlled Areas, the Areas left ungarrisoned must be their
lowest valued Protectorates. If, they still find themselves with insufficient Army units, the next Areas left ungarrisoned must
be the lowest valued Possessions, and then the lowest valued States and Dominions. If the Power has a choice among
multiple Areas with identical Controls and Values, they may select which of those they wish to leave ungarrisoned.
However, Britain's and Russia's special garrison rules (below) take precedence over this in determining which Areas to leave
Note that, should a member of a Codominion fail to meet its Garrison requirement, that Powers' Control marker is not replaced by an Influence marker since Influence markers cannot be kept in Codominions (it could be replaced with Interest, however, if there is no Possession marker in the Codominion Area).
In addition to this general garrison rule, special rules apply to the British and Russian players.
Special British Garrison Rule
The British player begins the game with three Army (10) Units in India. These three Units constitute the Indian Army. At all times in the game, the British player must maintain an Indian Army of at least three Army (10) Units. If any of the Units are destroyed in the game, he must rebuild them as soon as he can afford to do so (after paying regular maintenance). The Indian Army Units must always end their Movement/Status Change and Alliance Maneuver Phases within two Areas of India (India, for this purpose, is defined in Penalty to Great Britain on the Bonus Victory Points Summary), by Overland Routes.
Special Russian Garrison Rule
Russia must maintain a Western Garrison of at least three Army (10) Units in Russia and the following Areas: Serbia, Rumania, Greece, Bulgaria, and Anatolia. If any of these Units are destroyed, the Russian player (if any) must rebuild them as soon as he can afford to do so. If Russia has fewer than four Army (10) Units, none can ever be moved to any Area outside those specified (although smaller Army Units can be moved).
A Codominion is a shared Possession or Protectorate in an Area. Codominions can be established through negotiation during a Congress of Europe, or by agreement among allies at the end of a War. When a Codominion exists in an Area, each player represented in the Codominion must place (or upgrade to) a Protectorate or Possession; no Influence marker can be used to represent a Power participating in a Codominion.
If a Codominion is established in an Area where one Power has an Influence marker he can (with the agreement of the other players establishing the Codominion) upgrade his Influence marker to a Protectorate, paying 10£ to do so.
(14) When a Codominion (no relation to the British "Dominion") is established, more than one Protectorate and/or Possession marker can be placed in the Area, and all Powers with Protectorate and Possession markers there are considered to Control the Area jointly with other Powers represented. All of the Powers in the Area have the same rights they would have in a sole Protectorate or Possession, each receiving income (as long as the stipulations for trade income are met), and each able to move Military Units into the Area.
Each participant in a Codominion is responsible for his own garrisoning. Should a Power not have an Army Unit in a Codominion at the conclusion of a Movement/Status Change Phase, his Control marker is removed during the Marker Adjustment Phase. It is not replaced by an Influence marker, as is usual in such cases, because Influence markers cannot be present in Codominions.
When calculating income for control markers from an area where a codominion has been established, reduce the effective economic value by 1 for every control marker after the first.
Example: Hawaii's economic value is 5 pounds; currently, it is a codominion among the United States, Great Britain, and Japan, each of whom has established a Protectorate. Its effective economic value is 3 pounds (5 minus two surplus control markers), and each power will receive 12 pounds in income, less 10 pounds maintenance, each turn. Note: Only income for control markers is reduced; if France, say, had an Interest in Hawaii, it would still receive an income of 5 pounds, not 3 pounds.
Clarification: Control markers in a Codominion do not have to have the same rank. Protectorates and Possessions can co-exist in Codominions. However, States and Dominions cannot be part of Codominions.
During the Movement/Status Change Phase, each player is entitled to move his Merchant Fleets and Military Units as far and as often as he wishes, within the restrictions of the following rules.
You can move your Merchant Fleets from the Sea Zones they currently occupy to any other Sea Zones any distance away, as long as there is no more than one Merchant Fleet of a given nationality in a single Sea Zone oval. New Merchant Fleets that are available in the current Game Turn can be taken from the Game Turn Track. and placed in any Sea Zone oval that does not already contain a Merchant Fleet of that nationality.
The Cape Zones at the tips of Africa and South America cannot be occupied by Merchant Fleets.
You can move your Naval Units from the Area or Home Area Sea Zone Box they currently occupy and place them any distance away in any Coastal Area that contains one of your established Control markers, or in any of the player's Home Area Sea Zone Boxes.
An Army Unit must trace a path of movement during the Movement/Status Change Phase. This path must start in the player's Home Country or in an Area that contains one of the player's established Control markers and pass through adjacent Sea Zones and Areas, as follows:
Your Army Units can move through (but cannot end their movement in):
Any Sea Zone that contains one of your Merchant Fleets.
Your Army Units can move into (but must immediately end their movement in):
Any Area, in Unrest, that contains one of your Control markers, either established or unestablished.
Any Area, not in Unrest, that contains one of your unestablished Control markers.
Essentially, according to these two cases, you must pay for and place a Control marker in an Area in order to move an Army Unit into the Area. If by the end of the Marker Adjustment Phase, you have not established the Control marker, for any reason, any Army Units you have in the Area must retreat, as they would following an unsuccessful Colonial Combat.
Your Army Units can move into and through:
Any Area, not in Unrest, that contains one of your established Control markers.
Your Home Country.
BUILDING CARIBBEAN-SOUTH PACIFIC CANALS
During any Movement/Status Change Phase, any player can construct a Caribbean-South Pacific Canal through Panama or Central America. To construct a canal, you must have an established Influence or Control marker in either Panama or Central America and, during the Movement/Status Change Phase, spend 30£.
Note: A Canal can not be constructed in an Area currently in Unrest.
When either canal is built, place one of the Canal markers in the Area to indicate that the South Pacific and Caribbean are now considered adjacent. Once placed, canal markers remain in place for the remainder of the game.
Once built, the canal creates a connection between the Caribbean and the South Pacific. A player with an established Control marker in an Area containing a canal can deny access to it. Note that Control of only one of these Areas cannot deny access if canals exist in both Areas.
The first player to build a canal (either the Panama or Central America) gains 15 Victory Points immediately.Two or more players can cooperate in building Canals if they wish, drawing up Treaties as to how to split the costs and rewards if appropriate. If one of the canals is already built, construction of the second does not give the builder any Victory Points.
If two or more players attempt to build a Canal simultaneously and it is impossible to tell who built a Canal first, all powers attempting to build Canals shall spend the 30£. Roll dice to determine which was first and so gets the 15 VP.
During the Movement/Status Change Phase, you can transfer money to other Powers. Both powers must be in agreement for the transfer to occur
Colonial Combat represents combat between a Great or Minor Power and the native population of an Area. There are two situations in which Colonial Combat will occur:
A Great Power can engage in Colonial Combat in any Are, where it has one or more Army Units to establish a Control marker or to suppress Unrest.
It is perfectly possible that a Great Power will move Army Units into an Area in Unrest and attempt to establish a Control marker. The Colonial Combat procedure for either reason is the same. A victory by the Great Power in this case would both remove the Unrest marker and establish his Control marker.
A Minor Power will engage in Colonial Combat in any Area it Controls that is in Unrest.
A Minor Power is never required to engage in Colonial Combat solely to establish a Control marker. If directed to be active in an Area that is in Unrest, however, the Minor Power may attempt to suppress the Unrest. See Minor Powers.
In either case, Colonial Combat is resolved by comparing the number of Army Unit Strength Points the Power has in the Area with the Area's Combat Strength. The two Strengths are compared as a ratio, the player refers to the appropriate Combat Results Table, and rolls one die. The die roll will result in the defeat of either the native population or the defeat of the player's Army Units.
Note that Colonial Combat in an Area with a Combat Strength of zero is automatically successful, provided a Power has an Army Unit present in the Area.
COLONIAL COMBAT TO ESTABLISH A CONTROL MARKER
In order to establish a Control marker in an Area, a Great Power must defeat the Area in Colonial Combat. If the Great Power defeats the Area, the Status Change marker is immediately removed and the Status marker is considered established.
If the Great Power does not defeat the Area, the unestablished Status marker is removed and the Power's Army Units must retreat (unless, of course, they have been eliminated in the Colonial Combat).
(15) Note that the established and unestablished Status markers of any other colonial Powers in the Area, if any, ore not affected, whatever the outcome of another Powers' attempt to establish a Control marker
More than one Power can attempt to establish a Control marker in an Area in a single Colonial Combat Phase. Each Colonial Combat is resolved individually, having no effect on any other Power's attempt. If two or more Powers successfully establish Control markers, a Casus Belli will exist (place a Casus Belli marker as a reminder of unfinished business).
COLONIAL COMBAT TO SUPPRESS UNREST
Any Great Power that has an Army Unit in an Area that is in Unrest can attempt to suppress the Unrest. That Great Power can also attempt to establish a Control marker in an Area that is Unrest, if he has an Army Unit present. The player need conduct Colonial Combat only once to accomplish both of these goals. Note that, once any Power in an Area has suppressed Unrest, the Unrest marker is removed. Any other Power in the Area that is attempting to establish a Control marker must engage in Colonial Combat on its own not to suppress Unrest, but simply to establish its marker.
No one Power con ever engage in Colonial Combat in a given Area more than once per Colonial Combat Phase. All Army Units belonging to a Power in on Area must engage in Colonial Combat if any do so; all Army Units belonging to that Power are then subject to any results.
Unrest in a Controlled Area
Unrest in an Area with an established Control marker is a revolt by the natives against that colonial Power. During the Colonial Combat Phase, the Power can attack an Area in revolt with any Army Units it has there. If the Power defeats the Area, the Unrest marker is removed and no change in status occurs. If an Unrest marker remains in such an Area during the Marker Adjustment Phase, the colonial Power's Status marker is removed, all Military Units (Army and Naval) in the Area must retreat, and the Unrest marker is then removed; the revolt has been successful.
Note that the Status markers of any other colonial Powers in the Area, if any, are not affected, whatever the outcome of the revolt. Also note that other colonial Powers cannot intervene in the Area. It is possible that an Area that begins the game as a Possession or Dominion can lose its Status marker as a result of Unrest.
Unrest in an Influence Area
If an Unrest marker is placed in an Area where one or more players have established Influence markers, the Unrest marker represents a general revolt against colonial domination. Any player with an Influence marker in the Area can move Army Units into the Area during the Movement/Status Change Phase and attempt to defeat the Area during the Colonial Combat Phase. If any player succeeds in doing so, the Unrest marker is removed. If the Unrest marker remains in the Area during the Marker Adjustment Phase, all Status markers are removed from the Area, and any Military Units in the Area are required to retreat.
Note that Powers cannot combine forces to suppress Unrest. If two or more Powers have Military Units in an Unrest Area, they can engage in Colonial Combat in succession, with each successive Power's Military Units suffering elimination or retreat until the Area is defeated (and the Unrest marker is removed) or no Power's Units remain in the Area.
Unrest in a Neutral Area
If Unrest occurs in an Area where no Power has any established marker, or where there are Interest markers only, the Unrest marker represents general internecine warfare in the Area. Any Great Power can intervene in the Area to put down the Unrest by defeating the Area during the Colonial Combat Phase. If any Power succeeds in doing so, the Unrest marker is removed. If the Unrest marker remains in the Area during the Marker Adjustment Phase, all Status markers are removed from the Area, and any Military Units in the Area are required to retreat.
Unrest in Codominions
If an Area in Unrest is a Codominion, any of the member Powers (but no others) can move Military Units there and attempt to suppress the Unrest. Military Units representing different Powers in a Codominion can combine their Combat Strengths in a single attempt to suppress the Unrest.
COLONIAL COMBAT RESOLUTION
There are two Combat Results Tables, located on each Player Sheet, labeled 1 and 2. Table 1 is used when the total Combat Strength of the smaller force (whether the Area or the colonial Power) is less than 5. Table 2 is used when the Combat Strength of the smaller force is 5 or more.
The total Combat Strength of the attacking Units is compared with the Combat Strength of the Area as a Strength Point ratio. This Strength Point ratio is rounded off in favor of the Area to one of the ratios found on the Combat Results Tables (see Player Sheet).
Once the Strength Point ratio is determined, refer to the appropriate Combat Results Table, roll one die, and cross- reference the die roll with the Strength Point ratio to determine the result. There are six possible results.
E: Attacker eliminated. All of the colonial Power's Army Units in the Area are removed from the map.
AR: Attacker retreat. All of the colonial Power's Army Units in the Area must retreat. If the Area is adjacent to another Area that is Controlled by the player, he can retreat to that Area. If the Area is connected to a Sea Zone containing one of the player's Merchant Fleets, he can retreat by sea through connected Sea Zones (Communication Link) to any Area he Controls or to his Home Area. If a player cannot retreat his Units, they are instead eliminated.
EX: Exchange. If the Area's Combat Strength is less than the player's total Army Unit strength in the Area, the player must eliminate one or more Armies whose combined Combat Strength is at least equal to the Combat Strength of the Area. If, after he has made his elimination, he has any Units remaining in the Area, the Area is defeated. If the Area's Combat Strength is greater than or equal to the player's, treat this as an "E".
(16) ½EX: Half exchange. If the Area's Combat Strength is less than or equal to the player's total Army Unit strength in the Area, the player must eliminate one or more Armies whose combined Combat Strength is at least equal to one-half the Combat Strength of the Area. If, after he has made his elimination, he has any Units remaining in the Area, the Area is defeated. If the Area's Combat Strength is greater than the player's, treat this as an "E".
DR: Defender retreat. The Area is defeated.
DE: Defender eliminated. The Area is defeated.
Note that, when used for resolving attacks in War several of these results hove different meanings from those used in Colonial Combat.
During the Negotiation Phase, players have an opportunity to resolve disputes which constitute Casus Belli. Under certain circumstances, a dispute will result in a full-dress Congress of Europe, when certain special rules come into effect. Most disputes result from the placement of Control markers. Such disputes can be resolved by several means.
1.A player can agree to downgrade his Status marker, thus ending the dispute. In this case, the £'s spent to purchase the marker are lost.
This means of settling a dispute (as well as 2 and 3 below) can force the European Tensions Index to increase. As a rule of thumb any time a Status marker is removed because of a Status conflict in an Area, the European Tensions Index increases.
2.Influence markers cannot remain in an Area where a Control marker is established. If a Control marker has been played on an Area where other players have Influence, any Power can voluntarily downgrade their Influence or Control markers, thus ending their dispute. If a Protectorate (not Possession) is established, downgraded Influence markers can be replaced with Interest markers (since Interest markers are permitted in Protectorates). If all Control Markers in an Area are removed, they can be replaced with Influences (since Influences are permitted in the now Control-free Area).
3. A player can give his marker to another Power, removing it and replacing it with an equivalent marker owned by the receiving Power. Alternatively, he can give another player a Codominion in an Area he Controls by taking one of that player's Status markers and placing it in the Area. Consequently, a dispute can be resolved by giving a Power something else in exchange for his removal of an Influence or Control marker. Players can also freely transfer money to each other.
Important: Any new marker placed in this manner must be paid for. Markers transferred from one player to another are not considered new markers. However, when placing a new Control into a Codominion, this is a new marker.
4.Players can agree to establish a Codominion in an Area. All players with Control markers in an Area must agree for a Codominion to be established there. Basically, when a Codominion is established in an Area, more than one Control marker is placed in the Area. All Powers with Control markers there are considered to control the Area jointly with the other Powers. All of them have the same rights they would have in a sole Protectorate or Possession; all receive income, all can move Military Units into the Area; and so forth. If a Codominion is established in an Area where one Power has an Influence marker, he can (with the agreement of all other players with Controls) upgrade his Influence marker to a Protectorate by spending 10£ to do so. If a Codominion is created where a Power has an Influence, that Power will now have CB against all members of the Codominion.
Historical Note: A Codominion represents one of two things. Some Areas were partitioned between Powers; Morocco, for example, was partitioned between France and Spain. Other Areas were ruled jointly by two Powers, as the New Hebrides was by France and Britain. The case of New Hebrides is a fascinating one. British citizens were ruled by British law, and French citizens by French law. The judicial system was operated by a panel of three judges, one appointed by each of the two Powers, and a third appointed by the King of Spain as a neutral party. It was a bizarre and successful experiment at multi-state rule. Note that Guiana begins the game as an Anglo-Franco-Dutch Codominion (each ruled about a third of the Area).
Treaties are formal agreements among players. Players can make any informal promises to one another, but such promises can be broken without penalty (other than of a purely personal nature). Treaties, on the other hand, must be written and signed by the players who are party to them.
Treaties must be written in order to avoid disputes over what the signers of a Treaty really meant. If players wish, they can waive this requirement to speed play somewhat, at the price of increasing the likelihood of disputes. For those who do wish to write Treaties, a blank is printed on the back of the Minor Powers "Player" Sheet, which you can use as a model or to photocopy.
You can make any stipulation you wish in a Treaty. A Treaty can involve the exchange of Status markers upon signature or at a later time; it can stipulate that a player not place markers in particular Areas; it can require payment of £'s by one player to another; it can require a player to build Military Units or prohibits him from doing so; it can require or prohibit more than a certain number of Military Units in a particular Area or region of the world.
Treaties can also stipulate military Alliances, either under restricted conditions or not. For example, a Treaty might state that one Power would come to the defense of another if the original Power were attacked by a third Power. In effect, a Treaty can stipulate virtually anything that does not contravene the rules of the game.
Any violation of a Treaty constitutes a Casus Belli. Any party to a violated Treaty can declare War against a violating Power, or a party can convene a Congress of Europe to invoke sanctions against a violating player.
A Treaty can also give one Power a Casus Belli if a non-signer takes some action against another signer, or if another signer obtains a Casus Belli. For example, signers of a defensive Alliance Treaty are obligated to come to one another's defense. If a non-signer declares War against a signer, all other signers have Casus Belli against the declarer.
Players are free to keep the terms of Treaties secret from each other. They are not required to reveal the details of Treaty, or even let on that a Treaty has been drawn up or signed. If a secret Treaty is broken, however, a signer who wishes to use that fact to obtain a Casus Belli must make the Treaty public.
Secret Treaties must also be written. Otherwise, there is no way to prove that a Treaty existed in the first place. Note, too, that secrecy can be especially useful in forming the defensive Treaties needed by some players to collect Bonus Victory Points.
By mutual agreement among parties to a Treaty, the Treaty can be allowed to lapse. Also by mutual agreement, one signer of Treaty can be permitted to withdraw his signature while the Treaty remains in effect for other signers. Any lapse withdrawal must be by mutual agreement among all parties otherwise, it constitutes breaking the Treaty and grants other signers a Casus Belli.
Clarification: A power cannot extend a CB by Treaty to another power unless he himself is at War.
Example: Britain and France have an offensive Treaty. Britain has a CB against Germany. Britain cannot ask for French aid until they have declared War on Germany themselves.
Clarification: If a Treaty is broken after the Negotiation and Congress phases are concluded, the player with the new CB cannot call a new Congress.
Clarification: Revealing a secret Treaty is not considered a violation of a Treaty, and as such engenders neither an ETI increase nor a Casus Belli.
CONGRESS OF EUROPE
(17) A Congress of Europe is, essentially, a means of imposing Treaty on members of a dispute. Any player with a Casus Belli against one or more other players or Minor Powers can call for a Congress of Europe. Some or all of the Great Powers can attend the Congress, to discuss the dispute and negotiate resolution. All parties to the dispute over which the Congress is convened are automatically invited to the Congress. All other European players (Great Britain, France, Germany,
Italy, and Russia) may attend the Congress if they wish. The United States and Japan are members of a Congress only if they are party to the dispute, or if they are unanimously invited to the Congress by all European Great Powers, or if the Congress is held in the United States or Japan.
When a Congress is convened, the player who has called for the Congress must stipulate a site. Any player's Home Country is an acceptable site. Unless all players are party to the dispute, the Congress must be held in a country that is not party to the dispute. If all players are party, the Congress is automatically held in Germany. The United States or Japan can be a Congress site only if all European Great Powers are party to the dispute, and the United States or Japan is not.
If there is more than one dispute in a single Game Turn that cannot be resolved without recourse to a Congress, only a single Congress is called. All parties to all such disputes are members of the Congress (as well as the host country). The Congress can consider disputes in any order, or a single Treaty resolving all disputes at once can be proposed. If necessary, the Congress may be called upon to vote to determine the order in which disputes will be considered.
Once a Congress is called, any player attending can propose a Treaty to resolve the matter. In the case of status disputes, any such Treaty must resolve the dispute such that, once the Treaty is accepted, Status markers do not occupy Areas illegally. A Treaty can, however, make other stipulations - including those that do not have a direct bearing on the dispute.
Congressional Proposals may involve:
Downgrading or removal of Status Markers anywhere.
Transferring existing Status Markers among powers.
Transferring money among powers.
Limits or demands on future Power activities.
Granting of Codominions at no cost anywhere Controls exist.
Clarification: During a Congress of Europe, a power may be granted a codominion in an area under dispute at no cost in pounds, as long as at least one power at the Congress already has a control marker in the area. All powers with control markers in an area must agree if a codominion is to be granted to another power; powers with Influence in the area are not required to consent, but if they do not consent, they retain casus belli.
Once a Treaty is proposed, the members of the Congress must, after discussion, vote on it. A majority of the members of the
Congress is required for passage. If one or more members abstain, the treaty passes if a majority of those voting vote in
favor. In the event of a tie, the host player can break the tie. If a Treaty is defeated, the Congress continues until a Treaty is
finally accepted, or one party to the original dispute who has a legitimate Casus Belli tires of the proceedings and declares War.
If a Treaty is passed, all parties to the original dispute are asked to sign the adopted Treaty. If all do so, the terms of the Treaty come into effect, and Status markers are altered or removed as necessary. A player can refuse to sign a Treaty. If a player does refuse, however, all other members of the Congress - whether or not they were originally parties to the dispute - have a legitimate Casus Belli against the player, and they can declare War against him.
The Congress may pass a treaty that contains clauses affecting powers that are not party to a dispute. However, these clauses are not binding, and no casus belli occurs if the affected power refuses to sign the treaty. If he does sign the treaty, however, the clauses come into play. For example: A Congress is called over a dispute between England, Germany, and Belgium over the Kongo; it is held in France, and all the European powers attend. Russia proposes a treaty establishing an Anglo-German codominion in the Kongo, reducing Belgium to an Interest, and also requiring Japan to permit a Russian codominion in Korea (where no dispute currently exists). The European powers unanimously pass the Treaty, and all sign it; Japan refuses to sign the treaty. The status of Korea is not changed, and no power has a casus belli against Japan.
If a dispute member fails to sign, the dispute is still not resolved. In this case, only one of two things can occur:
A player can declare War against him, in which case the dispute will be resolved on the field of battle.
If all players who have a Casus Belli decide not to declare War, for whatever reason, and the dispute involves a Casus Belli marker still on the map, some Status markers must be removed to prevent a violation of the status rules.
In the latter case, the markers of the players who originally had Casus Belli, but refuse to use them to declare war, are removed from the Area, any Military Units illegally in the Area are removed to their Home Countries, and the Casus Belli marker is removed.
Unsuccessful resolution of a Congress of Europe also results in an increase in the European Tensions Index.
Note that Austria-Hungary can be the site of a Congress of Europe, but does not vote in the Congress - unless there is a tie, in which case the German player can vote twice.
Historical Note: A Congress was a meeting of potentates or their representatives to resolve issues of great import troubling
Europe. The congressional system evolved gradually over the course of the 17th, 18th, and 19th Centuries. They were called
infrequently - the last great Congress was that in Berlin in 1879 - but similar meetings of less importance, known as
conferences and operating under similar rules, met more frequently. The Congressional system was 5 civilized and elegant
one, a meeting of equals. Although it sometimes broke down into committees, the main work was done in a single chamber.
A Congress was presided over by the foreign minister of the state in which it was held, or his representative. The attendees
sat at a horseshoe-shaped table, seated in alphabetical order (in the French language, which usually meant that Germany -
Allemagne - was seated first).
In theory, any state affected by an issue which a Congress was called to resolve could participate, although in practice the Great Powers often ignored the lesser states. (For example, at the conference of 1869, which determined the destiny of Crete, no Greek representative was called to attend.) Decisions were taken only by unanimous consent, and were summarized in a protocol drawn up at the end of the conference. Many times in the course of the 19th Century, Congresses prevented war by resolving issues of contention.
To an extent, these Congresses were the precursors of the League of Nations and the United Nations; unlike those institutions, they worked. Perhaps they were viable because they evolved, rather than being planned; and, through evolution, reflected the strengths of the Great Powers, rather than working according to a visionary and impractical master schema. The revival of such a system would be beneficial today; alas, the nature of the Congress requires the existence of several more or less equally powerful states - something lacking in the bi-polar post- War period.
(18) CHINESE RESENTMENT
Throughout the Game Turn, and especially during the Chinese Resentment Phase, players must periodically adjust the Chinese Resentment Index whenever a condition on the Chinese Resentment Increase Summary is met. During each Chinese Resentment Phase - after the adjustment is made to the Track - roll three dice. If the total on the three dice is less than or equal to the number in the space occupied by the 10's marker on the Track, a Chinese Rebellion will occur in the immediately following War Phase.
For example, if the current total on the Chinese Resentment Index is 122, the 10's multiple is 12; any dice roll of 12 or less requires that a Chinese Rebellion occur.
The Chinese Resentment Increase Summary indicates which events affect the Resentment Index. Note that some conditions affect the Index at the instant they occur; other conditions affect the Index during the Chinese Resentment Phase. Some conditions affect the Index both instantly and during the Chinese Resentment Phase.
Note that a Summary of Chinese Resentment Increases is provided on the France and Japan Player Sheets. It is recommended that these players keep track of increases as they occur and during the Chinese Resentment Phase.
Clarification: If a power with a control marker in a Chinese Empire area or Vassal State grants a codominion to another power, this causes no immediate increase in the Chinese Resentment Index. If more than one power places a status marker in a Chinese Empire or Vassal State area during a Movement/Status Change Phase, this does cause the Resentment Index to increase for each marker placed. During the Chinese Resentment Phase, the Chinese Resentment Index increases for each control marker in a Chinese Empire area. Example: Britain controls Hong Kong, and grants Japan a codominion there; there is no immediate increase to Chinese Resentment. During the Chinese Resentment Phase, the Index increases by 6 points because two control markers are in Hong Kong, one British and one Japanese.
During the Chinese Resentment Phase, players determine whether or not a Chinese Rebellion will occur in the following War Phase. A Chinese Rebellion represents a War between the Empire of China and all colonial Powers. When a Rebellion occurs, it is played out in a series of War Phases, before any other Wars that may occur in the Game Turn are resolved.
During a Chinese Rebellion, China is always the First Alliance, while each colonial Power (Great and Minor) that has one or more Influence or Control markers in any Chinese Empire or Chinese Vassal Area is a member of the Second Alliance. Even if some colonial Powers are at War with one another as a result of a declaration of War during the Congress of Europe Phase, they are still allied during the Chinese Rebellion, and cannot attack one another until the Rebellion is resolved.
During Second Alliance Phases, the colonial Powers that are members of the Second Alliance move their Units, attack Chinese Units, and determine supply status, just as they would in any other War.
When a Chinese Rebellion occurs, the players must determine how many Chinese Armies appear on the map, and where they are placed. Roll one die; the number rolled is the number of Chinese Armies that appear. The players must roll once on the Chinese Army Placement Table (on your Player Sheets) for each Chinese Army that will appear. More than one Army can appear in a single Chinese Area. No Army can appear in an Area that is a Possession of a colonial Power, although Chinese Armies can appear in Protectorates. Take as many Chinese Armies as necessary from the counter storage tray and place them in the indicated Areas.
Note that, if all Chinese Areas are Possessions, no rebellion can occur. The Chinese Resentment Index will continue to rise normally to 99. Should a Possession marker be removed somehow, the Rebellion can then occur.
During a Chinese Rebellion, colonial Power Units can enter any Chinese Empire or Chinese Vassal Area (as well as their own Protectorates and Possessions).
Determining Chinese Army Movement
During the First Alliance Maneuver Phase, the players must determine how each Chinese Army will move. A Chinese Army in an Area that contains any colonial Army will not move. If a Chinese Army begins in an Area that contains no colonial Armies, it will move toward the closest Area that does contain a colonial Army. If two or more eligible Areas are equidistant, roll a die to determine where the Chinese Army will move. Chinese Armies, like other Armies, can move only from one Area to an adjacent Area in an Alliance Maneuver Phase. Chinese Armies can enter only Chinese Empire and Chinese Vassal Areas (whether or not such an Area is a Possession or Protectorate of a colonial Power). Colonial Armies that are not in Chinese Empire and Chinese Vassal Areas are not considered when determining where a Chinese Army will move.
During a First Alliance Attack Phase, every Chinese Army in an Area that contains enemy Units will attack those Units, regardless of the odds. If more than one Chinese Army is in an Area, they will combine their Combat Strengths into a single total when they attack. If more than one colonial Power Unit is present in an Area, they will combine their Combat Strengths into a single total when defending, even if they are of different nationalities.
When forced to retreat, Chinese Armies retreat according to the following preference: (1) into an Area that contains no enemy Units and is free of Control markers; or (2) into an Area that contains a Control marker, but no enemy Units. If there are two or more Areas of equivalent preference to which a Chinese Army can retreat, use a random method to determine to which the Army retreats. Armies can never retreat into Areas other than Chinese Empire and Chinese Vassal Areas. A Chinese Army that cannot retreat is eliminated.
Chinese Empire and Chinese Vassal Areas that are neither Protectorates nor Possessions retain their intrinsic Combat Strengths. When Chinese Armies attack or defend in such an Area, they add the Area's Combat Strength to their total. If Chinese Armies attacking in such an Area suffer an Attacker Eliminated or Attacker Retreat result, the Area is considered defeated. Likewise, an Area is defeated if a Defender Retreat or Defender Eliminated result, or an Ex or ½Ex result if the defending strength is less than the attacking strength, is inflicted on the Area by colonial Units. A defeated Area loses its Combat Strength for the rest of the Rebellion.
If, at the end of any Second Alliance Attack Phase a Chinese Army is in an Area that contains no colonial Armies but contains Status markers of any kind, those Status markers are removed. If the removed Status marker is a Control marker, the Area immediately regains its Combat Strength.
Clarification: Those Powers opposing the Chinese may, on their movement, move Army Units into any Chinese Vassal or Empire Area. Unless the Area has previously been defeated, the Army Units will have to engage the Area in combat.
Ending a Chinese Rebellion
A Chinese Rebellion ends in one of two ways:
1. If, during any War End Determination Phase, there are no Army Units owned by colonial Powers in any Chinese Empire or Chinese Vassal Area (including Hong Kong), the Rebellion has been successful. All Status markers in Chinese Empire and Chinese Vassal Areas are removed. All Chinese Armies are removed from the map, and the Chinese Resentment Index reduced to zero.
Clarification: During a Chinese Rebellion, it is possible for Chinese forces to have cleared mainland China of foreign devils, but be unable to reach enemy troops in Formosa, because they cannot move through the North or South China Seas. In this case, the enemies of the Chinese may declare an end to the Rebellion during any War End Determination Phase. All status markers in Formosa remain unchanged; all other status markers in Chinese Empire or Vassal State areas are removed. All Chinese armies are removed from the map, and the Chinese Resentment Index is reset to zero.
2. If, during any War End Determination Phase, there are no Chinese Armies remaining on the map, the War has ended in colonial Power victory. Status markers on the map remain where they are. The Chinese Resentment Index becomes zero. Next, the colonial Powers involved in the War can demand reparations from the Chinese government. Each colonial Power who has any remaining Army Units in any Chinese Empire or Chinese Vassal Area can demand the cession of one Chinese Area. Only defeated Areas can be ceded. If there are fewer defeated Areas than there are colonial Powers with Army Units in China, the Powers must decide among themselves who will receive the defeated Areas. Any Power can declare that it does not wish to receive an Area; a Power can also acquire an Area and return it to China. Each player who receives an Area can place a Control marker in the Area at no £ cost. Draw up Treaty stipulating the Areas ceded to each Power.
The demands of Great Powers are always met first, even if this means that Areas defeated by Minor Powers go to Great Powers, and Minor Powers end up with nothing
If the players cannot agree, no Areas are ceded. Only the players with Army Units in China at the end of the Rebellion are required to agree; the agreement of other players is not required. If any Minor Powers participated in the Rebellion the demands of the Great Powers involved are met first; thereafter, Minor Powers will demand Areas. The demands of the Minor Powers are met in the following order: Russia, Japan. The Great Powers must determine which Areas are ceded to Minor Colonial Powers. If the Great Powers decide that no Areas are to be ceded (or they cannot agree), no Minor Power receives Areas.
If Russia is a Minor Power, Russian Units are controlled during a Chinese Rebellion by the French player. Similarly Japan is a Minor Power, its Units are controlled by the British player. If a Minor Power has no Influence or Control marker at least one Chinese Empire or Chinese Vassal Area, it does not participate in the Rebellion, and no controlling player required.
(19) If, after Areas have been ceded at the end of a Chinese Rebellion, there are any Colonial Power Units in Areas that are not Controlled by the owning player, the players must immediately move those Units to Areas where they are legally entitled to be. Follow the procedure for movement of Units during the Movement/Status Change Phase.
Readjusting the Chinese Resentment Index
After reducing the Chinese Resentment Index to zero, players must immediately consult the Chinese Resentment Summary and increase the Index accordingly for each Status marker placed in a ceded Chinese Empire or Vassal State. Do not, at this time, count Areas that have pre-Rebellion markers; during the ensuing Chinese Resentment Phase, all Areas are counted normally.
Historical Note: In 1894, Sino-Japanese conflict over Korea escalated into war, one speedily won by Japanese arms. The
terms of the peace involved the cession of Formosa and the Liao-Tung peninsula to Japan, as well as recognition of Japanese
rights in Korea. Russia, disturbed by this, called for intervention by the Great Powers, and the agreement was modified: of
its conquests, Japan kept only Formosa, together with a sizeable sum in reparations. France and Russia achieved privileges
in the north and south of the Chinese Empire in return for their support; in the case of the Russians, these privileges rapidly
developed into a virtual annexation of Port Arthur, In short order the French also achieved rectification of the Indo-Chinese
border; a Burmese border settlement was achieved on terms favorable to Great Britain; and Germany obtained a 99-year
lease over Kiaochow in the Shan-Tung peninsula. In 1898, Britain obtain possession of Wei-hai-wei, a port city in
Shan-Tung, chiefly as a counterweight to growing Russian power in the north.
In short, it seemed as if the partition of the Chinese Empire was near. Starting in 1898, on anti-colonialist upsurge began to grow in China. Initially, it was connected with an association of lower-class thugs whose ideograph was one meaning "the way of the righteous fist, somewhat loosely translated as "Boxer. The Boxer movement was anti- colonialist, anti-Western, and wholly reactionary, although some modern historians have tried to paint it as the first of the left-wing nationalist Insurgencies. Its ideas were enthusiastically adopted by the dowager Empress and her court, then engaged in a power struggle with the Europhile young emperor Kwang-su. Innumerable atrocities against Westerners (and Japanese) resident in China and against Chinese Christians were perpetrated. By June of 1900, bands of Boxers roamed the countryside, pillaging Christian villages and tearing up the Peking-Tientsin railroad. The chancellor of the Japanese legation and a German minister were murdered.
On June 20th, 1900, Chinese troops opened up on the diplomatic legations in Peking. The result was intervention by virtually all the Great Powers: Japan, Britain; France, Germany, Italy, Russia, and the United States. This is not the place to detail the military operations or the diplomatic consequences; suffice it to say that by December order had been restored.
WAR WITH THE OTTOMANS
If any Power establishes a Control marker in any Ottoman Empire Area, the Ottoman Empire will declare War on that Power during the ensuing War Determination Segment.
Upgrading on existing Control marker will not trigger on Ottoman War- only the establishment of a new Control marker.
Wars with the Ottoman Empire are resolved after Chinese Rebellions, but before any other Wars. When the Ottoman Empire declares War, any player can announce that he is coming to the Empire's aid. After that, the Power whom the Ottoman Empire is fighting can request aid from any other Power. During the Alliance Determination Segment, players can declare whether they are declaring for one side or another. If the Ottoman Empire has no allies, it acts like the Chinese Empire during a Chinese Rebellion; that is it is the First Alliance, it moves to Areas within the Ottoman Empire containing enemy Units, and attacks them. However, the Ottomans will attack only Units belonging to Powers with which they are at War. If the Ottoman Empire has allies, the allied Great Powers determine how its units move and engage in combat, and initiative is determined normally. Independent Ottoman Areas (those without Control markers) retain their Area Combat Strengths, as do Chinese Empire and Chinese Vassal Areas.
When the Ottomans declare War, place 3 Ottoman Armies in Anatolia (regardless of whether or not that Area is Controlled).
If the Ottoman Empire has allies, the War is fought like any normal War, except that the Ottoman Empire is treated as a Minor Power allied to its Great Power allies. If it has no allies, the War is over when, at the end of any War Determination Phase, there are no Units belonging to the Empire's enemies in any of the three Ottoman Areas, or if there are no remaining Ottoman Armies or allied Units in the Ottoman Empire. In the former case, all Status markers belonging to the Empire's enemies are removed; in the latter case, no reparations can be demanded from the Empire and the conquering alliance can put any of their own legal status markers in the Area that originally started the War. At the end of an Ottoman War, Powers maybe required to move their units, as in a Chinese Rebellion.
If Egypt is not Controlled by any Power, Ottoman Units can enter the Area (presumably on their way to or from Tripoli). If Egypt is Controlled by an Ottoman ally or Ottoman enemy, Ottoman Units can similarly enter the Area and engage in combat there. Ottoman Units can never enter any other Area outside the Ottoman Empire.
If Egypt is Controlled by a neutral Power, it is possible for Ottoman Armies to remain in existence and for enemy Units to remain in Tripoli. In this case, the Ottoman Armies cannot move through Egypt to fight the enemy Units in Tripoli. In such a case, the War with the Ottomans can be ended during any War End Determination Phase upon demand of the Ottoman's enemies. They retain Status markers in Tripoli; markers in the Ottoman Empire and Quwait are removed; and all Ottoman Armies are removed from the map.
Important: Should an Ottoman War become a Great War, the power who placed the Control Marker that originally started the War shall be considered the first power to declare War for purposes of figuring the Great War penalties.
Historical Note: Egypt is a bit of an anomaly in the game. In fact, it was in 1880 an independent state under the nominal
sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire, although the Khedive of Egypt acted as a free agent, and had even, in the past, warred
with the Ottomans. Egypt was, however deeply in debt to British and French bondholders and, at various times, its
government was in practice controlled by a dual commission appointed by those two states. Egyptian finances were in
abysmal shape so that, in 1882, Britain felt compelled to intervene and take formal control of the country (to the dismay of
the French). One of the many peculiarities of this was that Britain's Prime Minister at the time, Gladstone, was an avowed anti-colonialist,
Although on independent state, Egypt is portrayed in the game as an Unorganized Area, because its debt provides a convenient excuse for any colonial power to annex it.
Essentially, War in Pax Britannica represents the failure of negotiation to find a peaceful solution to a dispute. In order to declare War, a player must have a Casus Belli against the player with whom he wishes to go to War. Once a player with a Casus Belli has declared War, the normal Game Turn is abandoned, and play proceeds to the War Sequence.
THE WAR SEQUENCE
At the beginning of the War Phase (of the Game Turn Sequence), players with Casus Belli can declare War. Once War is declared (or a Chinese or Ottoman conflict is determined to occur), the War Sequence is followed to completion for each War fought in a Game Turn, in the following order:
Chinese Rebellion (if it occurs in this Game Turn).
War declared by the Ottoman Empire (if it occurs in this Game Turn).
All other Wars, simultaneously.
Alliance Determination Phase
Each player involved directly in the War, or involved through Treaty, determines the Alliance to which he belongs. If a Minor Power, with no Great Power ally, constitutes one of the Alliances, a player is appointed to control the Minor Power's forces throughout the War.
Initiative Determination Phase
If the War is a Chinese Rebellion, the Chinese Empire is automatically the First Alliance, and the opposing Powers constitute the Second Alliance.
If the Ottoman Empire has declared War, and the Ottoman Empire has no Great Power ally, the Ottoman Empire is automatically the First Alliance, and the opposing Powers constitute the Second Alliance.
If neither of the two preceding cases applies, one player from each Alliance rolls one die. The Alliance rolling the higher number becomes the first Alliance, and the opposing Powers constitute the Second Alliance.
First Alliance Maneuver Phase
Players of the First Alliance can move the Military Units under their control.
First Alliance Attack Phase
Players of the First Alliance can use their Military Units to attack Military Units of the Second Alliance.
First Alliance Supply Determination Phase
Players of the First Alliance determine whether or not their Army Units and Areas are in supply, and surrender those Army Units and/or Areas that are not in supply. Players of the First Alliance determine whether or not their Fleet Units have coaling rights, and surrender those Fleet Units that do not.
Second Alliance Maneuver Phase
Players of the Second Alliance can move the Military Units under their control.
Second Alliance Attack Phase
Players of the Second Alliance can use their Military Units to attack Military Units of the First Alliance.
Second Alliance Supply Determination Phase
Players of the Second Alliance determine whether or not their Army Units and Areas are in supply, and surrender those Army Units and/or Areas that are not in supply. Players of the Second Alliance determine whether or not their Fleet Units have coaling rights, and surrender those Fleet Units that do not.
War End Determination Phase
If the players have negotiated an end to the War, proceed to the Resolution Phase.
Note that players are free to negotiate at any time during a War and to draw up a Treaty.
If no Army Units of one Alliance occupy any Area outside the Alliance's Home Countries, proceed to the Resolution Phase.
If every Controlled Area of one Alliance is occupied solely by enemy Army Units, proceed to the Resolution Phase.
Note: At the request of any warring power, the above two conditions may be ignored in the first two turns of a War, as powers may still be attempting to get their forces to the site of the War.
If three consecutive War Sequences have passed without any attacks on either side, the War has ended in a Stalemate; proceed to the Resolution Phase.
If none of the four preceding conditions applies, return to the Initiative Determination Phase and continue the War Sequence from that point.
If there are no further Wars to resolve in this Game Turn, the players alter Status markers to reflect the outcome of the War and any subsequent negotiations, return any surrendered or at-sea Naval and Army Units to their Rome Countries or eligible Areas, and proceed to the Victory Point Record Phase of the Game Turn Sequence. If there is another War to resolve in this Game Turn, perform all the steps in the preceding condition, and proceed to the Alliance Determination Phase of the War Sequence.
A Casus Belli is a cause of war, a conflict between two Powers that must be resolved either by negotiation or by War. In point of fact, players are prohibited from declaring War on one another or on a Minor Power without a Casus Beth. A summary of Casus Belli is provided on each Player Sheet.
In practice, most Casus Belli will be resolved, without recourse to War, through negotiation. As a general rule, a Casus Belli is effective for only one Game Turn; if a player does not use a Casus Belli to declare War against another player on the turn that the conditions of the Casus Belli occur, the Casus Belli expires and can no longer be used by that player as a pretext for War.
Historical Note: The 19th Century. unlike our own, was a civilized era. People generally believed that progress would lead to plenty for all, and that as civilization spread, wars would die out. They had good reason for this hope: save for the brief wars fought by Germany and Italy during the course of their unifications, Europe had seen no general war since the Crimea. True, wars sometimes occurred in such backward places as the Balkans, the Soudan, or America; but progress would bring peace. An important element in the establishment of worldwide peace was, of course, the fact that all civilized nations acknowledged and followed a code. Wars of raw aggression were ungentlemanly; wars were fought only for reasons of national honor and only because that honor had been transgressed. In short, war was like a duel between gentlemen, and duels may be fought only upon points of honor. In the modern era, by comparison, war is a grim struggle for survival, fought with every contrivance, without regard for the rights of individuals, fought, as least in theory, to the last man capable of bearing arms. Yet many historians castigate the Victorian era for its hypocrisy! Perhaps civilization is nothing but an agreement upon certain hypocrisies which permit peaceful intercourse.
(21) Casus Belli Markers
On the back of each Player Sheet is a Status Marker Placement Effects Summary. This summary should be consulted whenever two or more players place Status markers in the same Area in a Movement/Status Change Phase, or when one or more players place a Status marker in an Area that is already occupied by one or more Status markers. The Summary will clearly indicate where a Casus Belli exists.
Whenever the Status Marker Placement Effects Summary indicates a Casus Belli, players should place a Casus Belli marker in the Area, as a reminder that a Casus Belli exists in the Area. All of these markers must be removed by the end of the Game Turn by any of several means:
As a result of Colonial Combat, the removal of one or more Status markers can eliminate the Casus Belli.
As a result of negotiation, one or more players can voluntarily remove their Status markers.
A Congress of Europe can call for the removal of markers.
War can be declared. Once the War Sequence begins, all Casus Belli markers are automatically removed.
Treaties and Casus Belli
Whenever a player breaks a formal Treaty, all other signatories to the Treaty automatically have a Casus Belli against that player.
Also, players can sign Treaties with one another that give one signatory a Casus Belli if another signatory also obtains a Casus Belli or has War declared against him.
For example, if France and Russia were to sign a mutual defense pact, and Germany were to declare War against Russia, France would have a Casus Belli and could declare War against Germany Indeed, if France failed to do so, it would have broken the mutual defense Treaty, giving Russia a Casus Belli against France.
Similarly, Powers can sign mutual offensive Treaties. Such a Treaty stipulates that, if one signer declares War, the other is obligated to come to its aid. If Germany and Italy signed such a pact, and Germany declared War on France, Italy would also have a Casus Belli against France.
DECLARATIONS OF WAR
Any player with a Casus Belli can declare War against the Power that produced the Casus Belli. When any Power declares War on another power, are Treaties between the two powers are immediately ended.
Note that, when player A declares War against player B, player B does not reciprocate by declaring War on A in turn. This is important in terms of European Tensions.
War can be declared at the outset of the War Phase, during Negotiations, or during a Congress of Europe, if a disputant refuses to sign a Treaty or tires of the proceedings. In the latter cases, if other disputes remain that require resolution (and which will not be resolved by the declared War, since they concern Powers other than the disputants), those disputes should be resolved by Congress or Negotiations before any War Movement begins.
When War is declared, the players should consult the Treaties in force to determine whether or not other Powers are obligated to come to one of the warring Powers' aid. If so, an obligated player must state whether he is fulfilling his obligation by declaring War (with the consequent increase in the European Tensions Index). If he does, he is an ally of one of the warring Powers, and he is at War with all of the opponent(s). If a player refuses to abide by his Treaty obligations, his Treaty partners can declare War on him, in which case he is an ally of the opposing side.
Defensive Treaty Example: Britain declares War on France, which has a defensive Treaty with Germany. Britain's declaration increases the European Tensions Index by 5. Germany is obliged to declare War on Britain; if he does so, the European Tensions Index increases another 5 points. If he fails to do so, he has broken his Treaty with France, which increases the Tensions Index by 5 and gives France a Casus Belli against Germany (although, in practice, France would be foolish to use this to declare War against Germany).
Important: If you have a defensive Treaty with a Power that initiates a War, you are not obligated to declare war on his behalf (this applies to Austria-Hungary).
Austria-Hungary, which is an independent Great Power under the control of the German player, is considered to have a defensive Treaty with Germany. If any Power declares War on Germany, Austria-Hungary will come to Germany's aid (and vice versa), and the German player can use the Austro-Hungarian Units in the ensuing War. If Germany is the Power to declare War, however, Austria-Hungary is not obligated to aid Germany (and vice versa), since Germany is not fighting a defensive War. In this case, Austria-Hungary is considered a neutral during the ensuing War.
Normally, a War occurs between two different Alliances, each of which moves during one of the two Alliance Maneuver Phases. However, it is possible (though unusual) for a three- cornered War to occur.
For example, Britain is at War with France, France is at War with Germany, and Germany is at War with Britain - and no Power is allied with another.
In this case, the players should add Third Alliance Maneuver, Attack, and Supply Phases to the War Sequence, as necessary.
It sometimes happens that two separate Wars occur in a single Game Turn, in which each War has combatants that are not at War with any of the Powers in the other War. In such a case, the players should fight the two Wars out simultaneously, all Military Units in one War effectively ignoring those in the other War.
THE GREAT WAR
Any War involving any four or more of the following Powers is a Great War: Britain; France; Germany; Austria-Hungary; Italy; and Russia. In the event of a Great War, the game immediately ends. A number is printed in each box of the Game Turn Track; when a Great War occurs, each player loses as many Victory Points as the number printed in the box occupied by the Game Turn marker.
There are two exceptions to this rule: the player who started the War (was the first to declare War) and the player who caused the Great War by being the fourth Power to declare War, both lose triple the amount listed.
Note that Austria-Hungary is considered a Great Power for purposes of this rule, and thus declaring War against Germany brings two out of the four required Powers into the War. If Austria-Hungary is the fourth Power to declare War (because the other two Powers have declared War on Germany, for instance), the German player does not lose triple the number of Victory Points listed on the Game Turn Track.
(22) In a four-player game, any War involving Britain, Germany, and France is a Great War. Also, any War involving two of these three, plus any two of the following is a Great War: Austria-Hungary; Italy, Russia.
Clarification: A Chinese Rebellion in which four or more European Powers participate is not considered a Great War.
Clarification: If the Ottomans have no Great Power ally and wage war against four or more European powers, no Great War is deemed to occur. However, if at least one Great Power has declared its support for the Ottomans, and four or more European powers are involved in the war, the Great War breaks out.
Clarification: A Great War occurs when four or more European powers are involved in a single war. It is possible for four or more European powers to be at war during a single game-turn, and for no Great War to break out, if two or more separate but simultaneous wars occur. However, if four or more European powers are involved in overlapping Wars, a Great War occurs.
Example: Britain declares War on France. Germany declare War on Russia. We have two separate, non-overlapping Wars. There is no Great War. However, if Russia now calls on France as a defensive ally by Treaty, and France declares War on Germany, the two Wars combine and this is a Great War. In this case, Germany and Britain would both take the Great War Penalty as the first powers to declare War, and France would take the penalty as the last power to declare War.
WAR AGAINST MINOR POWERS
War is sometimes declared against Minor Powers. When this occurs, and some player allies with that Minor Power, the Minor Power's forces are controlled by that player. If no player allies with the power, the players should, by mutual agreement, choose one neutral player to control its forces. Needless to say, he is obligated to do his best for the Minor Power against its opponents.
MOVEMENT DURING AN ALLIANCE MANEUVER PHASE
The rules and restrictions on movement during the War Sequence are different from those in use during the normal Game Turn Sequence. The following rules for movement totally supercede the normal movement rules. Note that each Military Unit can move only one Sea Zone or Area each Alliance Maneuver Phase, subject to the following rules.
Merchant Fleet Movement
You cannot move your Merchant Fleets during the War Sequence.
Naval Unit Movement
During your Alliance Movement Phase, each Naval Unit belonging to your Alliance can move into one of the following:
Into an adjacent Sea Zone or Cape Zone where you have Coaling Rights (see definition, below).
Into an adjacent Coastal Area containing a Control marker that belongs to either Alliance.
To or from an adjacent Sea Zone and your Home Country.
Important Note: When occupying an Area that is adjacent to two Sea Zones that are not themselves adjacent (as Canada is adjacent to the North Atlantic and North Pacific), keep a Naval Unit in the Area to one side of the Area box, on the side corresponding to the Sea Zone from which it entered the Area. Similarly, Naval Units in the US and Russia Home Areas must be kept in one of the "port" boxes provided; for instance, a Naval Unit in the North Pacific box of the US Home Area could move only to the North Pacific; a Naval Unit in the North Atlantic/Caribbean could move to either of those Sea Zones.
Army Unit Movement
Subject to the three restrictions listed below, during your Alliance Movement Phase, each Army Unit belonging to your Alliance can move into one of the following:
Any adjacent Sea Zone containing one of your own Merchant Fleets.
Note that Army Units cannot use Merchant Fleets of allies to enter Sea Zones. This restriction also applies to Austro-Hungarian Units and German Merchant Fleets.
Any adjacent Area containing a Control marker that belongs to either Alliance.
To or from an adjacent Sea Zone or Area and your Home Country.
Note that German Army Units can move through Austria-Hungary and its Controlled Areas during a War provided both countries are at War.
Restrictions on Army Unit Movement
An Army Unit cannot enter a Sea or Cape Zone that contains opposing Naval Units unless the Zone also contains Naval Units belonging to your Alliance.
An Army Unit cannot move from a Sea Zone to a Coastal Area containing an opposing Naval Unit, and vice versa.
An Army Unit cannot move from an Area occupied by enemy Army Units to an adjacent Area occupied by enemy Army Units.
You have Coaling Rights in a Sea Zone if the Sea Zone is adjacent to your Home Country, or if the Sea Zone is adjacent to an Area that contains any of the following:
Your own Influence or Control marker.
An Influence or Control marker belonging to any member of your Alliance.
A neutral Power's Control marker, provided the neutral Power volunteers the Area for your coaling use. (Once volunteered verbally, such a neutral Area remains a coaling Area for the duration of the War; the owning player cannot change his mind.)
A conquered Control marker belonging to the opposing Alliance.
During Wars, the Cape of Good Hope and Cape Horn act as Sea Zones. That is, a Unit cannot move directly from the South Atlantic to the South Pacific or Indian Ocean, or vice versa. Instead, it must spend a turn moving to the intervening Cape Zone. Cape Zones act in all ways as Sea Zones during War, except:
Any Unit that has Coaling Rights in either the Indian Ocean or the South Atlantic is considered also to have them in the Cape of Good Hope Zone.
Any Unit that has Coaling Rights in either the South Pacific or the South Atlantic is considered also to have them in the Cape Horn Zone.
A player can move an Army Unit into either Cape Zone if he has a Merchant Fleet in either adjacent Sea Zone (subject to the restrictions on Army Movement regarding opposing Naval Units).
Minor Power Movement
Units of Minor Powers participating in a War are moved by their allies. If a Minor Power has more than one ally, the allied players must unanimously agree for any move by that Minor Power to be made. If a Minor Power has no allies, the player appointed to control its Units decides their moves.
CODOMINIONS AND WARS
Problems can sometimes arise when one warring Power holds an Area in Codominion with a neutral. If a Power that is not part of the Codominion moves a Military Unit to the Area, the neutral player has a Casus Belli against the moving player. If he wishes, the neutral player can immediately declare War against the moving player (with the normal increase of 5 to the Tensions Index). The neutral player can exercise this option only immediately upon the Military Unit's entry into the Area; if he fails to do so, he cannot later use entry into that Area as a pretext for War.
Example: Guiana is initially a Codominion between Britain, France, and the Netherlands. If Germany is at War with Britain and a German Unit enters Guiana, France has a Casus Belli against Germany and can immediately declare War. The Netherlands also has a Casus Belli. but Minor Powers will not declare War in this manner.
No problem occurs if players from both Alliances in a War hold an Area in Codominion with a neutral. Both Alliances can
then enter and have combat in the Area without giving the neutral a Casus Belli.
Example: Hawaii is a Codominion between Germany, Britain, and the US. Germany and Britain are at War. Both German and British Units can enter Hawaii without giving the US a Casus Belli.
An ally of a player who holds an Area in Codominion with a neutral can enter the Area without giving the neutral a Casus Belli.
Example: Japan is allied with Britain. Japanese Units can enter Hawaii without giving the US a Casus Belli,
(23) If an Area in Codominion is conquered, the Status markers of any neutral Powers in the Area cannot be removed or
altered in any way.
Example: France did not declare War when Germany invaded Guiana. At the end of the War, Germany has conquered Guiana and may, if he chooses, place a German Control marker there. France and the Netherlands were bath neutral, so their Possession markers remain in Guiana, which has now become a Franco-Germano-Dutch Codominion.
COMBAT DURING A WAR
During an Alliance Attack Phase, Units belonging to members of the Alliance can attack Units belonging to members of the enemy Alliance. All combat occurs within a particular Area or Sea Zone. Units in one Area or Sea Zone can attack only enemy Units within the same Area or Sea Zone. Only Naval combat can occur in Sea Zones; both Army and Naval combat can occur in Areas.
The Alliance whose Attack Phase is in progress can resolve attacks in any order the members of the Alliance wish. The Alliance can, for example, first resolve a Naval combat, then an Army combat, then another Naval combat, etc.
When Army combat occurs, any player with Army Units in the Area where the combat is being resolved can declare that he is attacking the enemy. Any allied player can participate in the attack, or refuse to do so, at his discretion. Minor Power allies of Great Powers will always attack if any Great Power in an Area chooses to attack. Minor Power Units in Areas where no Great Power ally's Units are located will attack only if all allied Great Powers agree they should do so. If a Minor Power has no allies, its Units attack when the player controlling the Power for the duration of the War decides they should do so.
If a player chooses to have his Units in an Area attack, all his Units in the Area participate in the attack. He cannot keep some of his Units in the Area out of the combat, although his allies can choose to participate in the attack or not, as they see fit. The attacking player(s) total the Combat Strengths of all allied Army Units in the Area that are participating in the attack. They then total the Combat Strengths of all enemy Army Units in the Area. All enemy Army Units must participate in the combat; if the Area contains Units belonging to several enemy Powers, all of them will participate in the combat, regardless of the wishes of the enemy players.
The Combat Strengths of Areas play no part in combat during a normal War. However, see Chinese Rebellion and Ottoman Wars.
The total Combat Strength of the attacking Units is compared with the total Combat Strength of the defending Units as a Strength Point ratio. This ratio is rounded off in favor of the defender to one of the ratios found on the Combat Results Tables (see Player Sheet).
Example: Japan is fighting a War with Russia, and has two Army (3) Units and one Army (1) Unit, for a total Combat Strength of 7 in Manchuria. Russia has two Army (1) Units and an Army (3) Unit, for a total Strength of 5 in the Area. The Strength Point ratio is 7-to-5, which is rounded off to 1-to-1; to have a ratio of 3-to-2, the Japanese would have to have a Combat Strength of 7, and since they do not, the ratio is rounded down to favor the Russians, who are the defenders. If Britain were an ally of Japan, and had one Army (1) Unit in Manchuria, the British player could choose either to join the Japanese in the attack, in which case the ratio would be increased to 8-to-5, rounded to 3-to-2; or they could choose to refrain, in which case the British Unit would suffer no adverse combat result should one be obtained.
The Combat Results Tables
There are two Combat Results Tables, located on each Player Sheet, labeled 1 and 2. Table 1 is used when the total Combat Strength of the smaller force is less than 5. Table 2 is used when the Combat Strength of the smaller force is 5 or more.
Once the Strength Point ratio is determined, refer to the appropriate Combat Results Table, roll one die, and cross-reference the die roll with the Strength Point ratio to determine the result. There are six possible results.
E: Attacker eliminated. All attacking Units are removed from the map.
AR: Attacker retreat. All attacking Units must immediately move to an adjacent Area or Sea Zone to which they could legally move during an Alliance Maneuver Phase. If there is no such Area into which the attacking Units can move, the Units must surrender. When Units retreat, they need not all retreat to the same Area or Sea Zone; the player can split his retreating Units up as he wishes.
EX: Exchange. All Units belonging to the smaller force (in terms of total Combat Strength) are removed from the map. The other side must remove Units whose combined Combat Strength is at least equal to the smaller force. If the stronger side consists of Units belonging to more than one Power, all Great Power Units are removed before any Minor Power Units are removed. If not all Great Power Units need to be removed, the players with Units in the Area must agree which Units are to be removed. If they cannot come to an agreement, all Great Power Units of the stronger side are removed.
½EX: Half exchange. All Units of the weaker force are removed. If both powers have the same strength, the attacker is treated as the weaker force. The stronger force must lose Units whose combined Combat Strength is at least equal to one-half the Combat Strength of the smaller force (round halves up). If the stronger force contains Units belonging to more than one Power, the rules outlined under EX are used to determine which are removed. When a half-exchange is rolled and both powers have the same strength, the attacker is treated as the smaller force.
DR: Defender retreat. This result is identical to AR, but is applied to the defending Units.
DE: Defender eliminated. This result is identical to E, but is applied to the defending Units.
Note that the same Combat Result Tables are used to resolve Colonial Combat, in which case some of the results have different meanings.
If, during its Attack Phase, an Alliance has Naval Units in an Area or Sea Zone that also contains enemy Naval Units, the phasing Alliance's Naval Units can attack the enemy Naval Units. Essentially the same procedure as for Army combat is followed, with the following changes:
Naval combat is always between Naval Units, and Army combat is always between Army Units. Naval Units can never lend their Combat Strength to Army Combat, nor vice versa.
(24) If forced to retreat, Naval Units can move to any adjacent Area or Sea Zone to which they could move during the
Maneuver Phase. Note that Army Units cannot retreat to an Area containing enemy Army Units, but Naval Units can retreat to Sea Zones or Areas containing enemy Naval Units. Land Units have no effect on the retreat of Naval Units, except that a Naval Unit cannot retreat to an Area containing enemy Military Units unless the Area also contains Military Units of the friendly Alliance. If there are friendly Army Units in a Sea Zone where Naval combat occurs, and the player is forced to retreat his Naval Units, the Army Units must also retreat.
Army combat takes place only in Areas. Naval combat can take place both in Sea Zones and Areas.
It is possible for Naval Units to retreat into an Area or a Sea Zone containing enemy Units where Naval combat has not yet been resolved. In this case, the retreated Units do not add their Combat Strength to other friendly Units in the Area, but they do suffer whatever adverse combat results are inflicted on those friendly Units.
If, at the end of combat in a Sea Zone, Army Units find themselves alone in a Sea Zone containing enemy Naval Units but no friendly Naval Units, those Army Units immediately surrender.
If, at the end of an Alliance Attack Phase, one Alliance has Army Units in an Area which is Controlled by an enemy Power, and no enemy Army Unit remains in the Area, the Alliance has conquered the Area. For the remainder of the war, the conquering Alliance treats the Area as a joint Controlled Area of all allied Powers. Of course, the Area can be reconquered by the enemy Alliance. No markers are changed when conquest occurs; that happens only during the War Resolution Phase.
Note that a conquered Coastal Area can be used by the conquering Alliance for purposes of Coaling Rights.
During an Alliance's Supply Determination Phase, the members of the Alliance must check to make sure each of its Army Units and Areas is in supply. An Area or Army Unit is in supply if (1) it is in (or is) the owning player's Home Area, Dominion, or State; or (2) it or its Area is connected to a Home Country, Dominion, or State of its owning player or an ally by a Line of Supply.
A Line of Supply can pass through Areas Controlled (or conquered) by the owning player and his allies, and through Sea Zones containing Merchant Fleets owned by the Unit's Power. A Line of Supply can be traced through such a Sea Zone even if the Sea Zone also contains enemy Naval Units.
However, a Line of Supply cannot be traced from an Area to an adjacent Sea Zone if the Area contains an enemy Naval Unit, even if the Area also contains friendly Army Units. In other words, enemy Naval Units can prevent a player from tracing a Line of Supply from an Area to a Sea Zone if the Area is "blockaded." Similarly, a Line of Supply cannot be traced out of a State or Dominion to a Sea Zone if the Area is blockaded; a blockaded State or Dominion cannot be used as a source of supply.
Since Units can never enter the Home Countries of other Powers, Home Countries cannot be blockaded.
An Army Unit that is determined to be out of supply immediately surrenders.
If an Area cannot trace supply, and Army Units of the opposing alliance are capable of reaching it given enough time, it immediately surrenders to the opposing alliance, that is, is conquered by them.
During an Alliance's Supply Determination Phase, the members of the Alliance also must check to make sure each of its Fleet Units has coaling rights. A Fleet Unit has Coaling Rights in a Sea Zone if the Sea Zone is adjacent to your Home Country, or if the Sea Zone is adjacent to an Area that contains an Influence or Control marker belonging to any member of your Alliance, a neutral Power's volunteered Control marker, or a conquered Control marker belonging to the opposing Alliance.
Under three conditions, Units will surrender:
When forced to retreat and unable to do so.
When out of supply or unable to draw coaling rights during their Alliance Supply Phase.
When Army Units occupy a Sea or Cape Zone containing enemy Naval Units, but no friendly Naval Units. When a Unit surrenders, it is removed from the map. It is not considered eliminated, however. Surrendered Units should be placed to one side. At the end of the war, they are returned to play (prisoners of war being repatriated to their Home Country). Returned Units are placed in the Home Area of their owning player.
NEGOTIATION AND ENDING A WAR
Players can negotiate at any time during a War. By mutual agreement of all combatants, a War can be ended at any time. When a War ends, the players should draw up a Treaty resolving any remaining disputes and making any other desired changes. All warring players must sign the Treaty. If one player refuses to sign, but his allies do sign, the allies are no longer in the War, and the opposing side continues to fight against the remaining player until he agrees either to sign the Treaty or negotiates a new Treaty with his opponents. This is termed a separate peace. Whenever a separate peace is made, the European Tensions Index increases by 5.
If no negotiated end to a War occurs, the War ends when all Military Units of one Alliance outside their Home Countries have been eliminated. When a War ends the victorious Alliance can divide up the Areas of the defeated Alliance that its forces are capable of reaching. The victorious players can, by mutual agreement, put any of their own legal Status markers in each of the Areas conquered from the defeated Alliance, whether those Areas were originally Protectorates or Possessions, at no cost in £'s. If the players cannot agree on a division of spoils, a Congress of Europe is automatically called and all players of the squabbling alliance have Casus Belli against each other.
An unsuccessful resolution of that Congress could, conceivably, result in another War among the victors over the spoils of the last conflict. This kind of behavior, however, is ungentlemanly and un-Victorian, and should be regarded by all civilized people with disgust:
A War also ends if no combat occurs for three consecutive War Phases. This is considered a stalemated end to the War. In this case, each side retains whatever Areas it conquered during the War, and the players on each side must decide how those Areas are divided up. Any of their own legal Status markers may be placed, and so forth.
A Minor Power cannot negotiate an end to a War. If a Minor Power has any Great Power allies, it will agree to any Treaty to which its allies agree. If it has none, it will fight until either it or its enemy is victorious or a stalemated end occurs. If victorious, it will obtain Possession of whatever conquered Areas it is granted by its allies, will move one Army (1) Unit into each Protectorate or Possession, and move all other Military Units to its Home Country. If it does not have enough Army (1) Units to garrison all Protectorates and Possessions, the players should take as many Army (1) Units are needed from the game box and place them on the map as required. If a Minor Power begins a war with naval units in areas outside its home country (e.g., Spain starts with fleets in Cuba and the Philippines), and the Minor Power wins the war, the Minor Power's strongest remaining naval unit is returned to its home country. Then, naval units should be returned to the areas outside the home country where naval units began, one per area. Any remaining naval units are returned to the home country. If the Minor Power does not have enough remaining naval units to place them in all areas where its naval units began, it places units in the highest economic-value areas first.
When a War ends, any Units that surrendered or were left in a Sea or Cape Zone are returned to their owning players. Returned Units are placed in the owning player's Home Area.
Clarification: It is possible for a war to develop in such a way that the remaining forces of one side cannot reach those of the other. In this case, either side may simply announce that the war has ended. The first side conquers all areas its forces are capable of reaching, while the second side retains any the first side could not reach.
Example: Spain gained a Protectorate in Tunis before the Spanish-American War broke out. The U.S. has no Merchant Fleet in the Mediterranean, and no coaling rights there; Algiers and Taureg are French, and Tripoli Ottoman, both of which are neutrals; so the U.S. cannot attack Tunis. All Spanish units, except for a 1-strength army in Tunis, have been eliminated or withdrawn to Spain. Spain announces an end to the war. The U.S. captures Porto Rico, Cuba, the Philippines, and Rio de Oro, but Spain retains possession of Tunis.
Clarification: At the end of a war, the power(s) in control of a conquered area may place any status markers they wish in the area, at no cost in pounds. Any conflicting markers, including those that belong to neutrals, are reduced or removed. This does not cause any change to the European Tensions Index.
Example: Kongo contains a Belgian Protectorate marker and a French Interest; German defeat Belgium in a war and conquers Kongo. The German player chooses to place a German Possession marker there; the French Interest must be removed.
Clarification: If, at the end of a war, no power has conquered an area, conflicting status markers exist, it is unclear what power controls the area, and there has been no resolution by treaty, all control markers in the area are reduced to Influences. No increase in European Tensions results.
EUROPEAN TENSIONS AND THE GREAT WAR
(25) Throughout the Game Turn, players must periodically adjust the European Tensions Index whenever a condition on the European Tensions Summary is met. If the European Tensions Index ever reaches 100, the game ends instantly, during whatever Phase is in progress. Players receive end of game Bonus Victory Points and Victory Points for Area ownership, but they do not conduct a final Victory Point Record Phase for the turn in which the game ends. Additionally, each player loses the number of Victory Points listed on the Game Turn Track for that Game Turn except the player responsible for forcing the Index to or beyond 100; that player loses three times the number listed. A player is said to have caused a Great War if:
He was the first Power to declare War, if that War eventually turns into a Great War (a War involving four European Powers) , was the fourth European Power to declare War, or was the Power that issued the Declaration of War that pulled the fourth European Power into the War.
He took any action that increased the European Tensions Index above 100.
He was the first player to declare War and, in the course of that War, the European Tensions Index rose to 100.
Note that, by these definitions, it is sometimes possible for more than one player to cause a Great War.
For example, if one player was the first to declare War, and a later Power's declaration of War caused the Index to reach 100, both Powers would be culpable.
EUROPEAN TENSION INCREASES
Other than voluntary reductions during the Movement / Status Change and War Phases and reductions due to Unrest, whenever markers are removed or downgraded, whether forcibly or via negotiation, the European Tensions Index increases. The Index increases one point for each step by which a Status marker is downgraded (from State/Dominion to Possession; from Possession to Protectorate; from Protectorate to Influence; from Influence to Interest; from Interest to nothing).
When a Congress of Europe convenes, the Index increases by 3 points. If the Congress is not resolved - that is, if the Congress produces no Treaty which all original disputants are willing to sign - the Index increases by 3 pointsfor each CB put before the Congress which remains unresolved. After that, the Index increases by 2 additional points for each Power that defies a Congress by refusing to sign a Treaty. Thus, the Index will increase by at least 5 points if the Congress is not successfully resolved.
The Index increases by 5 points each time a declaration of War is issued by a player. This could mean several increase of 5 if several players issue declarations of War in the course of a War. A single Declaration of War may name more than one opposing power; the European Tensions Index only increases by 5 points regardless of the number of powers named.
The Index increases by 5 points each time a player makes a separate Peace.
The Index increases by 2 points at the end of each War Phase during a War. Thus, the longer a War lasts, the more the Index increases. This increase does occur during Chinese Rebellions and Ottoman Wars. This increase does not occur in the phase in which a War ends.
Each time any Power other than the United States, Great Britain, or Japan constructs a Naval (1) or Naval (3) Unit (even if forced to by a Random Event), the Index increases by 1 point. Each time a Power other than these three constructs a Naval (10) Unit (even if forced), the Index increases by 3 points.
Each time a player breaks a Treaty, the Index increases by 5 points.
The Index increases by 3 points if a Great Power declares support for a Minor Power and fails to come to its aid during a subsequent War.
Note that a Summary of European Tension Increases is provided on the Russia, Italy, and United States Player Sheets. It is suggested that these players keep a close watch for situations that warrant a European Tension Increase.
Clarification: Should an ETI increase cause the ETI to reach 100+ (thus ending the game) the question of who receives the blame becomes very important. The power committing the action which causes the increase always receives the blame, except in some of the following, non-obvious (and very rare) cases:
If an Interest is forced to be downgraded by the placement of a Possession, the power who placed the Possession is responsible.
Clarification: Should a downgrade be forced by a conflict between a Control and an Influence, the power who placed the Control is to blame.
CANALS AND STRAITS
Egypt controls the Suez Canal, which provides the connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. During a War (only), a player who Controls Egypt can deny use of the canal to any other Power. A Power denied access to the canal cannot move Military Units nor draw Supply from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean, or vice versa.
Similarly, Anatolia controls the straits connecting the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. During a War (only), a player who Controls Anatolia can deny use of the straits to any other Power. A Power denied access to the canal cannot move Military Units nor draw Supply from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea, or vice versa.
During a War (only), all Canal Areas are considered to have two coasts. To blockade a Canal Area, you must blockade all coasts through which supply is being drawn.
During a Movement/Status Change Phase, players can construct a Panama Canal. Any player with an established Influence or Control marker in Panama can construct a canal by spending 30£. Once built, a canal connects the Caribbean Sea and the South Pacific. A player with a Control marker in Panama can deny access to the Panama canal, as per the Suez canal and the Straits.
Any player with an established Influence or Control marker in Central America can construct a canal by spending 30£. The same procedure as for the Panama canal is used. If both Panama and Central America canals exist, access between the Caribbean and South Pacific is denied only if a Power is denied access to both canals.
When either canal is built, place one of the Canal markers in the Area to indicate that the South Pacific and Caribbean are now adjacent - subject to the whim of a Controlling player. Once placed, a Canal marker is never removed from the map.
If no player has Control of a canal or straits Area, access cannot be denied. If such an Area is a Codominion, all member players must agree for access to be denied. If a neutral player denies use of the straits to one (but not both) Alliances in a War, or is a member of a Codominion and agrees to closing the straits, the Alliance which is denied has a Casus Belli against the neutral player. Any member of the Alliance can, if he wishes, immediately declare War against the neutral player (making him a member of the other Alliance).
The first player to build a Panama or Central America canal gains 15 Victory Points immediately. If one of the two canals has already been built, building the second canal does not give the second builder any Victory Points. Note that the builder of the canal is the player who gains Victory Points, not the player who ends up Controlling the Area.
Austria-Hungary, although a Great Power, does not have its own player. Austria-Hungary is always controlled by Germany. The German player can make defensive (but never offensive) Alliances in the name of Austria-Hungary alone, or along with Germany. A permanent defensive Alliance always exists between Germany and Austria-Hungary, but this does not mean that Austria-Hungary will always enter a War in which Germany takes part - only when Germany is attacked. If Germany is attacked, Austria-Hungary is still not required to aid Germany. They may instead break the German-Austrian Defensive Treaty, increasing the ETI by 5 as normal. The German-Austrian defensive Treaty is then non-existent until the start of the following year, at which point it is reintroduced. Should their player break the Austrian-German Treaty, the Casus Belli between the two is immediately waived.
(26) The German player can move Austrian Units, use them to engage in combat, build and place Status markers, and so forth. Note, however, that Austrian Units cannot use German Merchant Fleets to move or provide Communication Links, so Austria is essentially confined to exploiting the adjacent Areas.
The German player can transfer £'s from the German Treasury to Austria-Hungary, but not vice versa. Austria- Hungary can never give £'s to any other player.
During the Victory Points Record Phase, the German player adds the German and Austrian Treasuries together before dividing to determine the number of Victory Points he earns for the current Game Turn. That is, the Austro-Hungarian £'s do contribute to the German Victory Point total. Also, at the end of the game, Austrian Status markers do contribute to the German Victory Point total.
The winner of Pax Britannica is determined according to the number of Victory Points each player has accumulated. There are three basic means of acquiring Victory Points:
Purchasing Victory Points with £'s remaining on your Treasury Track at the beginning of the Victory Point Record Phase.
Receiving Bonus Victory Points for meeting the conditions listed on the Bonus Victory Point Summary during each Game Turn or at the conclusion of the game.
Determining your end-of-game Status marker values. Victory Point awards (and penalties) are made either during the Victory Point Record Phase of each Game Turn or during the Final Record Phase of the last Game Turn.
VICTORY POINT AWARDS DURING THE VICTORY POINT RECORD PHASE
During the Victory Point Record Phase, fill out Section V of your Administrative Record Sheet. On Line 23, write the number of £'s remaining on your Treasury Track. Attached to the Colonial Office Income table at the bottom of the Record Sheet is a list of Victory Point Divisors. Find the divisor for your country, divide the number on Line 23 by that number, and write the result on Line 24 (fractions are lost). Any money left over after purchasing victory points is lost; all treasuries begin every turn empty.
For example, if Great Britain has 167 £'s on Line 23, the British player divides this number by 10 (Great Britain's divisor) for a total of 16 Victory Points in this turn.
To fill in Line 25, consult the Bonus Victory Point Summary. Most Bonus Victory Points are awarded at the end of the game, but some - for revealed Treaties in effect, and for the construction of a South Pacific-Caribbean Canal - are awarded during the Game Turn. Write the total of any applicable per-turn Bonuses on Line 25. Then total the amounts on Lines 24 and 25 and write the result on Line 26.
From Game Turn to Game Turn, add the totals on Line 26 to reflect your total accumulation of Victory Points.
Note: The victory point divisors for both Russia and Italy are changed to 2.5.
VICTORY POINT AWARDS AT THE END OF THE GAME
During the Final Record Phase of the last Game Turn - either Game Turn 10 or upon the outbreak of the Great War - fill out Section VI of your Administrative Record Sheet. On Line 27, enter the accumulated total of Victory Points from the last Game Turn of Line 26. To fill out Line 28, consult the Bonus Victory Point Summary and enter the total of all applicable Bonuses (and penalties).
To determine the figure for Line 29, re-figure Section II (the Income Record), taking into account any gains or losses that may have occurred since the Administrative Phase of the current Game Turn. Double the number of £'s you calculate, and divide this total by your Victory Point Divisor. Enter the resulting number on Line 29.
In essence, at the end of the game, each player gains as many Victory Points from his Areas as he would receive over two turns of collecting income from it without subtracting maintenance costs.
If the game has ended due to the outbreak of the Great War, write the penalty number from the Game Turn Track on Line 30. Note, however, that if you were responsible for starting the Great War, you must enter triple the penalty number on Line 30.
Total the numbers on Lines 27, 28, 29, and 30 and write the result on Line 31. Compare final totals to determine your finishing rank, with the greatest total coming in first, the second greatest second, and so forth.
PATHS ACROSS AFRICA
A player earns 10 Victory Points if he owns an east-west path across Africa. To fulfill this condition, a player must have a Control marker in one Area in the northwest of Africa (Marocco, Rio de Oro, Mauretania, Senegambia, or Ashantee) and one in the northeast (Egypt, Soudan, Eritrea, Berbera, Somalia, or Kenya) and be able to trace a Communication Link by Overland Routes only between the northwest and northeast Areas.
Similarly, a player can earn 15 Victory Points for owning a north-south path across Africa. A player owns a north-south path if he has a Control marker in one African Area adjacent to the Mediterranean (Marocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli, or Egypt) and one Coastal Area in the tip of Africa (Cape Colony, Sudwest Afrika, or Mozambique) and is able to trace a Communication Link by Overland Routes only between the Mediterranean and tip Areas.
Note that more than one player can earn VP's for complying with these two conditions. A player can earn each bonus only once, however; he does not earn twice as many Points for having two east-west paths.
Area Austria-Hungary Canal Building Canal Use Cape Zones Casus Belli Chinese Army Movement Chinese Rebellion Chinese Resentment Coaling Rights Codominions Codominions in Wars Colonial Power Combat (Colonial) Combat (War) Combat Strength Communication Link Congress of Europe Conquered Areas Control Declarations of War Downgrading Status Markers Economic Value Establishing Status Markers European Tensions Forced Expenditures Game Markers Game Turn Sequence Garrisons Great War (through War) Great War (through ETI) Home Areas Income Maintenance Merchant Fleets Military Units Minor Powers Minor Powers starting Wars Minor Powers at War Minor Power Activity Minor Power Reaction to Unrest Movement Movement (Maneuver) during War Naval Combat Negotiations Negotiating an End to a War Ottomans Overland Routes Retreat at Colonial Combat Retreat at War Sea Zones Status Change Status Markers Defined Status Markers Straits Supply Suppressing Unrest Surrendered Units Treaties Unrest Upgrading Status Markers Victory Points War Sequence
Pax Britannica is copyrighted 1985 by Victory Games, Inc. Though Victory Games is now out of business, I believe that Avalon Hill now owns the rights to the game. In any case, mass reproduction of these rules without their permission is probably frowned upon (I think). This resource is solely intended for use for Pax games I moderate by Email.
The Pax Britannica addenda were copyrighted 1993 by Greg Costikyan and Robert Sacks.
My own contributions aren't copyrighted- I'm just here because I enjoy it and wanted to make things easier for those who play with me...
Should the rightful owners of these copyrights, whomever they may be, wish me to remove this page, I will do so should they ask. Until then, it will remain here, solely for personal use and for the use of players in games I moderate.
Mark O'English, June 1st, 2001